Geography B, Unit 4: Water World (FULL MARKS!)

Contains revision material which I have created and acquired full marks on the Geography B exam on.

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Glossary/Keywords, Hydrological Cycle, impacts of climate change on developed world, physical factors affecting the water cycle, wet & dry ecosystems, human factors affecting the water cycle, Reservoirs - benefits & disadvantages, quality of water, water stress, case study, water scarscity case studies, hard engenering (top-down), soft engineering (bottom-up).

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EVAPORATION Evaporation occurs when the physical state of water is changed from a liquid state
to a gaseous state.

CONDENSATION Condensation is the process by which water vapour changes its physical state
from a vapour, most commonly, to a liquid.

PRECIPITATION Precipitation is the process that occurs when any…

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This is the closed system where the water goes round and round, but none is added or lost from the

When precipitation falls from the atmosphere it may get to the river in several ways. If it falls directly
into the river it is called chemical precipitation,…

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Rapidly growing population which puts increased pressure in drought years on failing food supplies,
Global warming may reduce the amount of water available.

Impacts of climate change on developed world:

Heating costs and road gritting costs would decrease
Tourism flourishing
Fever people die due to less flu and bacteria spreading…

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Human Factors affecting the water cycle:

Farming ­ Farming takes out water from rivers and lakes, decreasing the supply. Over
abstraction may take place, which can empty out rivers and lakes. This may cause famine. The
water that sits on surface may also evaporate, causing more frequent rainfall. The polluted…

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The biggest sources of water pollution are found in rapidly developing countries such as China and India -
they put economic growth before environmental problems. The rapidly growing cities mean slums around
the outskirts and badly pollute streams as there are no sewage systems in place. Chemicals added to the…

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Case Study: Sahel
Many of the countries in the Sahel are developing countries such as Chad, Ethiopia, Niger and Sudan.
They are among the poorest countries in the world and have rapidly growing population. They put
pressure in drought years on falling food supplies. Semi land is very fragile environment…

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Drought resistant plants - These may be used to stabilise sand dunes and start the successful
development of vegetation

Water Scarcity Projects
APPROPRIATE/INTERMEDIATE SOLUTIONS: Schemes that meet the needs of local people and the
environment in which they live. Within their technical ability ­ they can operate and maintain the…

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Hard Engineering (Top-down)
Case Study: Three Gorges Dam, China

Good Economic:
More energy attracts industry
more industry means development of the city
Bad Economic:
Population growth as people migrate to these areas
Huge cost to build and maintain
Fishing economy fail as there is less fish due to blockage



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