Geography A2 AQA - World City Unit 3

All notes and case studies for unit 3 human geog - World cities

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  • Created on: 08-06-12 15:36
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Definition: - The growth in the proportion of a country's population that
lives in urban areas opposed to rural areas. Also describes the actual
process of moving from rural to urban areas.
- More housing provision and job opportunities
- Natural increase
- In migration
- Better healthcare and education e.g. Delhi
- Better access to food and water
- Moving away from agriculture based jobs to secondary/tertiary jobs
- Overcrowding; leads to poor hygiene which spreads disease causing an unhealthy workforce
- Increase of informal jobs e.g. fixing bikes on the side of a road which doesn't have a
guaranteed wage and does not pay tax. Can't afford a home so builds squatter settlements
E.g. Dhavari
- Price of land increases due to the increased demand
- Overcrowding causes congestion = pollution: air, noise, visual +river pollution
- A person who cannot get homes in the city centre close to where they work are forced to
buy houses further out and have to commute in which leads to more pollution and the use of
vehicles and causes the build-up of suburbs.
- Lack of education = lack of healthcare which leads to lack of contraception, so infant mortality
- Geology of area can affect this as the location of a town/city may mean it cannot expand to
provide for the increase in population = overcrowding
E.g. Mumbai is located on a peninsula
Case Study ­ Delhi, India:
- North India, South Asia
- Capital city of India
- Fastest growing city in the world due to natural increase and migration
- 13.7 million people in 2001
Causes for growth:
- Higher literacy rate of 81% compared to national 66%
- Universities and research institutes
- Hub of country so attracts migrants in political, economic and administrative sectors
- Industrial sector produces everything from TVs to Medicine
- 4 medical colleges
- Capital of Fashion ­ bridal collections

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- 52% live in slums
- Low infant mortality =40 in comparison to in slums which is 54
- Lack of safe drinking water and sanitation causes disease e.g.…read more

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- Overcrowding; e.g. Dhavari, north of central Mumbai
Biggest clum in Asia, home to 600,000 people. Spreads over 2km2. Lies across a narrow part
of the peninsula and across commuting routes which restricts development.
- Shortage in housing and jobs
- Low hygiene conditions
- Build-up of slum dwellings
- Congestion and pollution
- Government want to slowly clear the slums in sections and replace them with 7 storey
tenements and rehouse those who lived in slums since 1995 for free.…read more

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Definition: - Process of population movement from central areas of cities
to the outskirts, often engulfing surrounding villages/rural areas.
- Facilitated by improvements to public + private transport
- Happens mostly in MEDC, where more people have income to spend on travel etc.…read more

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- More congestion of cars travelling inner city
- Pollution :air, noise, visual
- Higher crime rates in poorer districts e.g. Compton
- More people have moved and located on the San Andreas Fault line which means more
people at risk of earthquake
- 60people were killed in 1994 earthquake, 6..7 on Richter scale
- Shortage of houses
- Urban sprawl, loss of rural areas, country side and villages. Social segregation, all wealthy in
suburbs and poor are trapped.…read more

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Definition: - The migration of people from major urban areas to smaller
towns, villages and rural areas. Often called `Leap frogging' the greenbelt.
- People desire to move away from what is perceived as congested, polluted, crime ridden
urban environments to more pleasant rural environments.…read more

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Definition: - The movement of people back into urban areas, particularly
the inner city or CBD. People want to move in because there are better job
opportunities closer to the city with better services; reduces commuting
times as inner city high paid jobs can have long hours. Moving towards
sustainable communities; occurs through a process called Gentrification.…read more

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Urban Decline
Definition: - A process whereby a previously functioning city (or part of a
city) falls into disrepair and decay. It may feature deindustrialization,
depopulation, economic restructuring, abandoned buildings, high local
unemployment, fragmented families, political exclusion, crime, and
abandoned, unwelcoming city landscape.…read more

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Has some success but business are relocating to take advantages of tax breaks
Inner city task force:
- Temporary scheme to provide training courses = created 15,000 new jobs
Single generation's budget:
- Local authority had to bid for budget used for regeneration
- Hope to involve local people and have a say in what the money shall be used for
English Partnership:
- National Regeneration Agency in England
- Work with local authority, housing corporations and regional development agencies.…read more

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Urban Regeneration
Definition: - Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of
moderate to high density urban land use. May involve relocation of
businesses, the demolition of structures, and the relocation of people
Property-led Regeneration:
- Associated with urban development corporations (UDC) in 1980/90 e.g.…read more


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