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Definition: - The growth in the proportion of a country's population that
lives in urban areas opposed to rural areas. Also describes the actual
process of moving from rural to urban areas.

- More housing provision and job opportunities
- Natural increase
- In migration
- Better healthcare…

Page 2

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- 52% live in slums
- Low infant mortality =40 in comparison to in slums which is 54
- Lack of safe drinking water and sanitation causes disease e.g. diarrhoea
- Worst air pollution; 4 times worse than World Health Organisation call safe
- 1/3 people have respiration problems…

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- Overcrowding; e.g. Dhavari, north of central Mumbai
Biggest clum in Asia, home to 600,000 people. Spreads over 2km2. Lies across a narrow part
of the peninsula and across commuting routes which restricts development.
- Shortage in housing and jobs
- Low hygiene conditions
- Build-up of slum dwellings…

Page 4

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Definition: - Process of population movement from central areas of cities
to the outskirts, often engulfing surrounding villages/rural areas.

- Facilitated by improvements to public + private transport
- Happens mostly in MEDC, where more people have income to spend on travel etc.
- Leads to residential estates…

Page 5

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- More congestion of cars travelling inner city
- Pollution :air, noise, visual
- Higher crime rates in poorer districts e.g. Compton
- More people have moved and located on the San Andreas Fault line which means more
people at risk of earthquake
- 60people were killed in 1994…

Page 6

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Definition: - The migration of people from major urban areas to smaller
towns, villages and rural areas. Often called `Leap frogging' the greenbelt.

- People desire to move away from what is perceived as congested, polluted, crime ridden
urban environments to more pleasant rural environments.
- Land and…

Page 7

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Definition: - The movement of people back into urban areas, particularly
the inner city or CBD. People want to move in because there are better job
opportunities closer to the city with better services; reduces commuting
times as inner city high paid jobs can have long hours. Moving towards…

Page 8

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Urban Decline
Definition: - A process whereby a previously functioning city (or part of a
city) falls into disrepair and decay. It may feature deindustrialization,
depopulation, economic restructuring, abandoned buildings, high local
unemployment, fragmented families, political exclusion, crime, and
abandoned, unwelcoming city landscape.

- High population out migrate, leaving…

Page 9

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- Has some success but business are relocating to take advantages of tax breaks

Inner city task force:
- Temporary scheme to provide training courses = created 15,000 new jobs

Single generation's budget:
- Local authority had to bid for budget used for regeneration
- Hope to involve local people…

Page 10

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Urban Regeneration
Definition: - Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of
moderate to high density urban land use. May involve relocation of
businesses, the demolition of structures, and the relocation of people

Property-led Regeneration:
- Associated with urban development corporations (UDC) in 1980/90 e.g. London Docklands…


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