Geography unit 1 notes

This document is for those who are doing GCSE Geography good luck in your exams and hope these notes support you for geting top grades. 

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  • Created on: 28-05-16 11:21
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Geography unit 1: Challenges for the planet
Climate change:
Causes for climate change:
Human causes;
Increase in car ownership
Increase in wealth has led to a demand for more energy,
food, goods, and transport
Increased emissions in greenhouse gases
CO2 Production rapid increase in the last 100 years from
burning fossil fuels and car exhausts.
Deforestation trees being cut down for settlement , farmland and mines
Natural causes;
Solar output the amount of energy given off by the sun
Volcanic eruptions release large amounts of sulphur dioxide and ash into the atmosphere.
These act like a barrier to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth's
Orbital geometry has two explanations:
1. The shape of the earth's orbit around the sun varies from nearly circular to
elliptical and back to circular again every 100 000 years. Cold glacial periods have
occurred when the earth's orbit is circular and warmer periods are when the orbit
is elliptical.
2. The tilt of the earth's axis varies over time from a 21.5 ° to a 24.5 ° . This variation
occurs over a 40 000 years. The greater the angle of the tilt, the hotter the
summers and the colder the winters are. When the angle is greater the earth
usually experiences warmer periods.
Surface reflection. This is when during the colder periods when there is larger amounts of
snow and the ice on the earth, global temperatures will drop due to he snow and ice
reflecting sunlight back to space.
Effects of climate change
There is now an average increase in temperatures by around 0.6%, but the increase is far greater
to up to 3 in the Polar Regions.
In Europe there will be more storms and floods in the UK and factories are still being built. But in
Kenya there have been many droughts in every 3 years. In South America and North America
glacier national park was created in 1910 there were 150 glaciers. Today there are only 30 glaciers.
World impacts on climate change:
Mining in Brazil: They use mercury which is very toxic and is found high in concentration.
You could get cancer from it and die.

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Peru: only one in four of the Nanti live to be teenagers.
Gas project in Peru: deforestation has caused drainage patterns to be altered, habitats
being destroyed and animal movement's disturbed.
Africa: Eighty million more people are exposed to Malaria
There will be a water decrease in parts of southern Africa and the Mediterranean
10% decline in crop yields in tropical regions of Africa and Asia.…read more

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USA do not want to join the Kyoto protocol because they are a highly developed country
and if they are down sized with factories they will be losing money and they cannot afford
for this mistake to happen.
Case study: Borris bikes (LONDON)
Borris Johnson has helped change the community as well as reduced
the amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by creating a cycle
scheme.…read more

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Sustainable Development
There are two detentions for sustainable development:
1. Sustainable development is meeting the needs and wants of today without
harming the environment o future generations can meet there needs and wants.
2. The development that looks to balance different, and often competing, needs
against an awareness of the environmental, social and economic limitations we
face as a society
The role of large organisations for becoming sustainable...
By Easter 2011 Cadburys Easter egg packaging became
smaller, becoming more sustainable.…read more

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A, a worth estimated £5.5million to charities helping with the basic
needs in countries like Africa. Plan A also have managed to reduce their carbon
footprint even as the business has grown with transportation.…read more

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There are many parts to the urban transport problem and we need to think very carefully about
the management strategies/ solutions to this. There are many different solutions, some in which
are cheap and some in which are expensive but they fall into two main groups:
1. Respond to the increasing demand , by building more and better roads and encouraging
more cars, e.g. M11 link road, A406 to Beckton is a new road.
2.…read more

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Since 1960 areas of rainforests have been deforested around the world as a direct
Impact of population growth economic development and the need to seek more
Varies Of land users and economic activities have emerged including new
settlements, cattle branching, mining, water and hydroelectric power, roads,
railways and the clerical logging of timber wood. This destruction have been
largely unsustainable and have had big impacts on biodiversity, local people
including indigenous tribe's countries with rainforests and the world as a whole.…read more

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The need for sustainable management of rainforests
Over the last 25 years the issues of the rainforest had gained pace and therefore the United
Nations, national governments and large organisations/ companies like Greenpeace and media
campaigners have all raised the profile of the rainforest and promoted methods seeking the more
sustainable way forward i.e. how can the rainforest be used economically without damaging it
further.…read more

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The first question of unit 1 will be on a number of geographical skills:
1. OS map skills (2015= 9marks)
2. 18 graphical/ cartographic
3. GIS ( geographical information system)
4. Fieldwork application of Minehead Somerset
Settlement shape
The word shape refers to how the arrangement of buildings in the settlement and the shape of the
line made up of the outer edge. There are 3 main types:
Nucleated : where the buildings are grouped together.…read more



These are very helpful notes, especially the settlement change section! Thank you!

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