# Geographical Skills

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- Created by: lorretta
- Created on: 12-05-15 20:28

Geographical SkillsWord Document 27.06 Kb

## Pages in this set

### Page 1

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Unit 4 geographical skills

Sampling methods- Systematic sampling

Used when studying areas including environmental gradients

Sample points should be evenly spaced or distributed

It is quick and easy but it is easy to miss variations

Types of systematic sampling

o Point sampling

o Line sampling

o Area…

Unit 4 geographical skills

Sampling methods- Systematic sampling

Used when studying areas including environmental gradients

Sample points should be evenly spaced or distributed

It is quick and easy but it is easy to miss variations

Types of systematic sampling

o Point sampling

o Line sampling

o Area…

### Page 2

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Avoids bias

Disadvantages:

Can lead to poor representation of population or area if large areas are not hit by random

sampling, distorting results

Practical constraints- time available and access to certain parts of the study area

Stratified sampling

Is used when the population or sampling frame is…

Avoids bias

Disadvantages:

Can lead to poor representation of population or area if large areas are not hit by random

sampling, distorting results

Practical constraints- time available and access to certain parts of the study area

Stratified sampling

Is used when the population or sampling frame is…

### Page 3

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Line graphs

Simple line graph- shows single series of data

Comparative line graph- shows two or more on the same graph and use the same scales

Divergent line graph

Strengths:

Easy to draw and understand

Can show both positive and negative values

Displays relative numbers and proportions…

Line graphs

Simple line graph- shows single series of data

Comparative line graph- shows two or more on the same graph and use the same scales

Divergent line graph

Strengths:

Easy to draw and understand

Can show both positive and negative values

Displays relative numbers and proportions…

### Page 4

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Circle size can also be made proportional to total quantity to compare different

populations

Summarises large data

Easily understood due to widespread use

Weaknesses:

May not show numerical data

Can get crowded with too many divisions

Categorical data only

Won't know exact values

Easily manipulated

Fails to…

Circle size can also be made proportional to total quantity to compare different

populations

Summarises large data

Easily understood due to widespread use

Weaknesses:

May not show numerical data

Can get crowded with too many divisions

Categorical data only

Won't know exact values

Easily manipulated

Fails to…

### Page 5

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Can show previously unseen patterns e.g. log graphs show increase in world population to

be slowing down, normal graphs do not show this slow down.

Weaknesses:

Cannot start from 0

May make some relationships appear different as parabolic curves on a normal graph

become straight on log…

Can show previously unseen patterns e.g. log graphs show increase in world population to

be slowing down, normal graphs do not show this slow down.

Weaknesses:

Cannot start from 0

May make some relationships appear different as parabolic curves on a normal graph

become straight on log…

### Page 6

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Measured over a set period of time

Strengths:

Strong visual impression of both volume of movement & direction

Weaknesses:

Parts of the map may be obscured/crowded and difficult to interpret

Not appropriate for lots of variables

Desire line

Shows the strength of people who move from point…

Measured over a set period of time

Strengths:

Strong visual impression of both volume of movement & direction

Weaknesses:

Parts of the map may be obscured/crowded and difficult to interpret

Not appropriate for lots of variables

Desire line

Shows the strength of people who move from point…

### Page 7

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

One variable only

Inexact not the actual data

Isoline map

Maps showing lines drawn through points of equal value

Often used with colour between isolines to more clearly depict trends

Strengths:

Show more gradual change than choropleths avoid abrupt change

Can clearly see boundaries

Show…

One variable only

Inexact not the actual data

Isoline map

Maps showing lines drawn through points of equal value

Often used with colour between isolines to more clearly depict trends

Strengths:

Show more gradual change than choropleths avoid abrupt change

Can clearly see boundaries

Show…

### Page 8

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Testing for a relationship between two variables

If number is above critical value must accept the alternative hypothesis- there is a

relationship

If number is below the critical value, accept the null hypothesis- there is no relationship

Formulate a null hypothesis individually rank values of each variable…

Testing for a relationship between two variables

If number is above critical value must accept the alternative hypothesis- there is a

relationship

If number is below the critical value, accept the null hypothesis- there is no relationship

Formulate a null hypothesis individually rank values of each variable…

### Page 9

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Weaknesses:

Can't be used if there are less than five sets of data

Uses ranking so loses raw data

Chi Squared

Process:

Null hypothesis `no relationship between distribution of... and of...'

Subtract observed frequencies from expected

Square result

Divide this by the expected value for that…

Weaknesses:

Can't be used if there are less than five sets of data

Uses ranking so loses raw data

Chi Squared

Process:

Null hypothesis `no relationship between distribution of... and of...'

Subtract observed frequencies from expected

Square result

Divide this by the expected value for that…

### Page 10

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

10

10

## Related discussions on The Student Room

- AQA A2 GEOG4a EXAM DISCUSSION, 09/05/17 »
- Map skills »
- Edexcel GCSE Geography A - Unit 1: Skills and Challenges ... »
- A2 Edexcel Geography 2016 Contested Planet/Geographical ... »
- Edexcel Unit 4: Geographical Research »
- AQA Geography Unit 4a Geog4a June 2017 »
- AQA GEOG4A A2 14th June 2013 »
- What is the most high-paying/demanding jobs in 2021-2025? »
- AQA A2 Geography unit 4A 16/06/14 »
- AQA GEOG2 AS LEVEL EXAM 20th MAY 2016 ... »

## Similar Geography resources:

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0.0 / 5

# Geographical Skills

0.0 / 5

- Created by: lorretta
- Created on: 12-05-15 20:28

Geographical SkillsWord Document 27.06 Kb

## Pages in this set

### Page 1

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Unit 4 geographical skills

Sampling methods- Systematic sampling

Used when studying areas including environmental gradients

Sample points should be evenly spaced or distributed

It is quick and easy but it is easy to miss variations

Types of systematic sampling

o Point sampling

o Line sampling

o Area…

Unit 4 geographical skills

Sampling methods- Systematic sampling

Used when studying areas including environmental gradients

Sample points should be evenly spaced or distributed

It is quick and easy but it is easy to miss variations

Types of systematic sampling

o Point sampling

o Line sampling

o Area…

### Page 2

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Avoids bias

Disadvantages:

Can lead to poor representation of population or area if large areas are not hit by random

sampling, distorting results

Practical constraints- time available and access to certain parts of the study area

Stratified sampling

Is used when the population or sampling frame is…

Avoids bias

Disadvantages:

Can lead to poor representation of population or area if large areas are not hit by random

sampling, distorting results

Practical constraints- time available and access to certain parts of the study area

Stratified sampling

Is used when the population or sampling frame is…

### Page 3

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Line graphs

Simple line graph- shows single series of data

Comparative line graph- shows two or more on the same graph and use the same scales

Divergent line graph

Strengths:

Easy to draw and understand

Can show both positive and negative values

Displays relative numbers and proportions…

Line graphs

Simple line graph- shows single series of data

Comparative line graph- shows two or more on the same graph and use the same scales

Divergent line graph

Strengths:

Easy to draw and understand

Can show both positive and negative values

Displays relative numbers and proportions…

### Page 4

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Circle size can also be made proportional to total quantity to compare different

populations

Summarises large data

Easily understood due to widespread use

Weaknesses:

May not show numerical data

Can get crowded with too many divisions

Categorical data only

Won't know exact values

Easily manipulated

Fails to…

Circle size can also be made proportional to total quantity to compare different

populations

Summarises large data

Easily understood due to widespread use

Weaknesses:

May not show numerical data

Can get crowded with too many divisions

Categorical data only

Won't know exact values

Easily manipulated

Fails to…

### Page 5

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Can show previously unseen patterns e.g. log graphs show increase in world population to

be slowing down, normal graphs do not show this slow down.

Weaknesses:

Cannot start from 0

May make some relationships appear different as parabolic curves on a normal graph

become straight on log…

Can show previously unseen patterns e.g. log graphs show increase in world population to

be slowing down, normal graphs do not show this slow down.

Weaknesses:

Cannot start from 0

May make some relationships appear different as parabolic curves on a normal graph

become straight on log…

### Page 6

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Measured over a set period of time

Strengths:

Strong visual impression of both volume of movement & direction

Weaknesses:

Parts of the map may be obscured/crowded and difficult to interpret

Not appropriate for lots of variables

Desire line

Shows the strength of people who move from point…

Measured over a set period of time

Strengths:

Strong visual impression of both volume of movement & direction

Weaknesses:

Parts of the map may be obscured/crowded and difficult to interpret

Not appropriate for lots of variables

Desire line

Shows the strength of people who move from point…

### Page 7

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

One variable only

Inexact not the actual data

Isoline map

Maps showing lines drawn through points of equal value

Often used with colour between isolines to more clearly depict trends

Strengths:

Show more gradual change than choropleths avoid abrupt change

Can clearly see boundaries

Show…

One variable only

Inexact not the actual data

Isoline map

Maps showing lines drawn through points of equal value

Often used with colour between isolines to more clearly depict trends

Strengths:

Show more gradual change than choropleths avoid abrupt change

Can clearly see boundaries

Show…

### Page 8

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Testing for a relationship between two variables

If number is above critical value must accept the alternative hypothesis- there is a

relationship

If number is below the critical value, accept the null hypothesis- there is no relationship

Formulate a null hypothesis individually rank values of each variable…

Testing for a relationship between two variables

If number is above critical value must accept the alternative hypothesis- there is a

relationship

If number is below the critical value, accept the null hypothesis- there is no relationship

Formulate a null hypothesis individually rank values of each variable…

### Page 9

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

Weaknesses:

Can't be used if there are less than five sets of data

Uses ranking so loses raw data

Chi Squared

Process:

Null hypothesis `no relationship between distribution of... and of...'

Subtract observed frequencies from expected

Square result

Divide this by the expected value for that…

Weaknesses:

Can't be used if there are less than five sets of data

Uses ranking so loses raw data

Chi Squared

Process:

Null hypothesis `no relationship between distribution of... and of...'

Subtract observed frequencies from expected

Square result

Divide this by the expected value for that…

### Page 10

Lorretta Salkeld 13P

10

10

## Comments

No comments have yet been made

## Similar Geography resources:

0.0 / 5

5.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

## Related discussions on The Student Room

- AQA A2 GEOG4a EXAM DISCUSSION, 09/05/17 »
- Map skills »
- Edexcel GCSE Geography A - Unit 1: Skills and Challenges ... »
- A2 Edexcel Geography 2016 Contested Planet/Geographical ... »
- Edexcel Unit 4: Geographical Research »
- AQA Geography Unit 4a Geog4a June 2017 »
- AQA GEOG4A A2 14th June 2013 »
- What is the most high-paying/demanding jobs in 2021-2025? »
- AQA A2 Geography unit 4A 16/06/14 »
- AQA GEOG2 AS LEVEL EXAM 20th MAY 2016 ... »

## Comments

No comments have yet been made