Geographical Research - Tectonics

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Geographical research
Earthquakes
Northridge
1994
USA Cali- san Fernando valley
6.7 ­ USGS
High frequency
Transform boundary- thrust fault `Pico'
MEDC highly urbanised
Widespread ­ 80 mile radius
$42 billion
DAMAGE-
4000 buildings damaged
8000 moderately damaged
7 bridges collapsed ­ 170 bridges damaged
Widespread liquefaction
60 dead
RESCUE-
Emergency services there in half an hour
FEMA ­ Federal Emergency Management Agency were there 15 mins after the event (ntl.bst.gov)
FEMA- deployed 2 urban search and rescue teams
U.S public health service deploys 4 disaster medical assistance teams to the disaster area
RED CROSS- set up 26 shelters
SALVATION ARMY- 5 shelters
REBUILDING -14 hours after debris was being cleared
REHABILITATION-
10 days- rebuilt an overpass- Gavin Canyon
First week after event people returned to their jobs
And traffic volumes were increasing
FHWA ER funds - $350 million
PREVENTION/ MITIGATION-
Community memory was high ­ last EQ was 2 yrs. ago
A city wide curfew was put in place
Diversions were put in place
WARNING-
In the first few hours ­ landlines were out- radio and mobile connections were the only way to
communicate
Rural areas like the canyon areas were hard to get a signal
There were daily press conferences
Bilingual information hotline ­ for transport information
EVACUATION-
Within hours emergency services put in place detours for damaged roads

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Haiti- 2010
In the Dominican republic
Near Port Au Prince
7.…read more

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Communication systems, Air land and sea transport facilities, hospitals and electrical networks had
been damaged- This hampered rescue efforts
Many people slept in the streets
Kashmir 2005
Pakistan- epicentre in Muzaffarabad (highly populated area)
7.6
Eurasian plate went underneath he Indian plate
It is an LEDC
Affected 30,000 miles2
Cost %5.…read more

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EVACUATION-
People wouldn't leave their homes because of their livestock
Sumatra 2005
Indonesia- island off the coast of Sumatra
8.7
Major aftershocks ­ 5.5 ­ 6.…read more

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Christchurch
New Zealand
7.1 - Major aftershocks
High frequency but the EQ wasn't expected to occur where it did
Pacific/ Australian subduction zone
MEDC- GDP- $17,000, 2.4 doctors per 1000 people, 100% have access to drinking water, Life expectancy
-81
Cost $10.…read more

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EVACUATION
Dangerous areas were shut off
La Aquila 2009
Italy
6.3
High frequency
Destructive PB ­ African with Eurasian
MEDC
Cost $15 billion
DAMAGE
damage 11,000 buildings
65,000 people homeless
Poor building standards or construction materials further contributed to number of victims.
290 people dead
RESCUE
11,000 volunteers helped with the aftermath
RELIEF
40,000 people found accommodation in tented camps.
Further 10,000 were housed in hotels on the coast.…read more

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Izmit 1999
Turkey
7.4
High frequency
NIC
Caused damage to Istanbul -70 miles away
Damage costs $23 billion
DAMAGE
23,000
1.5 mill homeless
23,000 destroyed
Killed 17000
RESCUE
Rescue teams were dispatched within 24­48 hours of the disaster
assistance to the survivors was channelled through NGOs and the Red Crescent
The U.K announced an immediate grant of £50,000 to help the Turkish Red Crescent
International Red Cross and Red Crescent pledged £4.5 million to help victims.…read more

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Kobe 1995
Japan
7.…read more

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VOLCANOES
Monserrat 1995
small island in the Caribbean
has been dormant for 300 years
1995-1997 eruptions occurred getting more and more violent ­ Remained active for 5 years
Destructive plate boundary
LEDC
DAMAGE
Volcanic eruptions and lahars destroyed large areas of Montserrat
The capital Plymouth covered in layers of ash and mud
homes and buildings destroyed and the only hospital, the airport and many roads
Unemployment rose due to the collapse of the tourist industry
Killed 19 people
The British government gave money for compensation…read more

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Armero
Molten rock was released by the volcano
hot pyroclastic flows ran down the mountain
this melted the summit- causing hot lahars- (40kph)
Most of the town was swept away or buried in only a few short minutes,
killing three quarters of the townspeople
15,000 animals killed
10,000 homeless
4500 injured
400 houses destroyed
50 schools
2 hospitals
6000 acres of grain and livestock lost
KILLED 23,000 people ­ 70% of the town
RESCUE
3 days after the event the government still didn't have a…read more

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