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A2 Geography 4.2 Glacial Systems Student Lesson Notes

1. Glaciers as Dynamic Systems.

The Glacier System of Inputs, Outputs and Stores.


Glacier: An extensive body of land ice, consisting of ice crystals, trapped air, water and rock debris, which exhibits evidence of down slope movement under the

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Annual Glacier Budget (Accumulation and Ablation).
Accumulation: the process of snow and ice nourishment of a glacier form precipitation (snow and freezing rain), rime ice, from direct sublimation, hoarfrost,
avalanche material and drifting snow.

Ablation: the wastage or removal of surface snow or ice by melting, evaporation and sublimation. The…

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The Impact of the Annual Budget on Advance and Retreat.
Glacial advance: the state of a glacier when its front or snout is advancing. This state is reached when accumulation exceeds ablation leading to a positive mass

Glacial retreat: the state of a glacier when its front or snout…


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