GEOG1 Bible

Everything for the core units, population change and rivers and floods + optional units: cold environments and health

I have included all necessary case studies for this unit

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Population Change
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) is the number of children born per thousand people per year.
Crude Death Rate (CDR) is the number of deaths per thousand people per year.
Total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children each woman has.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of deaths of children under the age of 1 out of 1000 born.
Life expectancy is the average age of mortality and thus the expected living age.
Longevity is the increase in life expectancy over time as a result of improved medical provision.
Natural change is the difference in birth rates and death rates and will create a natural increase in the population or natural decrease.
Natural increase happens when a population's CBR exceeds its CDR and thus the population grows.
Natural decrease happens when a population's CDR exceeds its CBR and thus the population declines.
In the year 1999, the world's population hit 6 billion. Natural increase peaked at 2.2% annual growth in the 1960s and since has
declined to 1.2%. Estimates suggest that by 2050, the population will be 9 billion and 0% growth by 2100. The world's
population entered rapid growth in the mid 20th century because of industrialization.
Natural decline is occurring in Europe, North America and Australia. In 1995, they had a 20% share in the worlds population
but this is expected to fall to 12% by 2050. Europe's population will shrink by 90 million in this period.
Rapid population growth is occurring in Asia. Between 1995 and 2050, India, China and Pakistan held the highest shares in the
world's population.
Factors that affect fertility (SPERM)
Social: Social class can affect the fertility. In the UK, fertility decreases from lower to higher classes. can affect the fertility. In the
UK, fertility decreases from lower to higher classes. Young age structures will have high birth rates when their population
moves through child bearing age maintaining population momentum.
Political: Government policies of fertility will prohibit or encourage the birth of children. In china, more than one child in
banned whereas in France, the birth of multiple children in encouraged through tax rebates etc.
Education: Education for women is important to lower fertility. Education allows for the knowledge of birth control, and more
opportunities for employment, which will lead to higher equality for women. This will lower the number of children born as women
have careers.
Religion and culture: Cultural expectations can mean that fertility rates are high. In the Middle East, large families are seen
as a sign of wealth. Also, large families are seen as a sign of virility in males. In countries such as Yemen, contraceptive use
is frowned upon and only 23% of women use it. Islam and the Roman Catholic Church prohibit the use of contraception.
Money (Economy): In LEDCs, children are seen as an asset to help with agriculture in particular. In Chad and Cameroon, the
agricultural labor force is 63% and 69% respectively. They have a TFR which is more than double the TFR of the USA and Hong
Kong where the agricultural work force is less than 3%. In MEDCs, children are seen as consumers and a burden.
Factors that affect mortality
Sanitation and access to clean water reduced the prevalence of infectious diseases.

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Food technology has increased nutrition and balanced diets and reduced famine and obesity. The development of golden rice
increased vitamin E content for areas where of low nutrition.
Pharmaceutical developments have reduced mortality. The development of penicillin in 1928 saw an increase in life
expectancy as it became more available. Increased from 57 to 66 in the UK in 17 years after discovery.
Education improves a population's knowledge on health risks.…read more

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Stage 5 ­CDR>CBR:
Birth rate begins to decline even further while death rate remains stable and the population begins to decrease e.g. Japan and
Birth rate decreases because children are so expensive to raise and many people have dependent elderly relatives.
Death rates remain steady as there are more elderly people so more people die despite any advances in health care.
The DTM has many limitations:
The original data was from more developed countries and this means it may not be valid worldwide.…read more

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Falling birth and death rates. More people live to be elderly.
4. Low birth and Death rates. High life expectancy and lots of elderly people.
5. Birth rate drops below death rates and population declines. The number of elderly people increases.
Impacts of an ageing population:
Increased pressure on public services. There is a greater demand for geriatric care and hospitals. More people are needed to care
for the elderly.
More family members cannot work if they are looking after dependent elderly.…read more

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Limiting the immigration of younger people
Encouraging family planning and the use of contraception.
Increasing the provision of childcare.
Migration is the movement of people within or between countries. Immigration is the movement into an area and emigration is the
movement of people out of an area. Migration alters population structure.
Internal migration affects the number of young adults in an area.…read more

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The gov. is trying to introduce contraceptive use and family planning. Currently, contraceptive use of married women is less than
Free condoms.
New policies introducing family planning clinics allow women to plan how many children they want and when they will have them.
Birth rate has increased since 1991 suggesting this hasn't worked.
ABC approach (abstain from sex before marriage, be faithful to one partner and use condoms) to reduce unprotected sex.…read more

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Category: Government policies
China enforced the `one child policy' in 1978, which restricted the number of children any family can have to one. It was designed to
alleviate pressure on the environment and the economy. Before the policy was introduced, it had been predicted the population would
have reached 2 billion and the quality of life for all Chinese would be worse than poverty. It currently applies to 35.…read more

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British people prefer the lifestyle of other countries and emigrate.
High dominance of males as it is mostly males who migrate to seek employment.
Discrimination against ethnic groups and minorities.
Control against immigration wanted.
Anger at government for letting the migrants in.
Source Country (Poland):
Remittances are sent back to families.
The government does not have to support as many people.
9.67 billion pounds has been sent back to ex-soviet states as remittances (total).
Has acted as a cushion against the recession.…read more

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Suburban area.
Terraced housing to the east of the ward and to the west there are larger semi detached souses with gardens that border Ashton
Lane ends shopping center with over 40 shops.
There are many bus stops with frequent services to the city center.
The percent of privately owned house increases as you move away from the inner city (Fishwick) from 60.5% to 92.7% in
The proportion of ethnic minorities decreases as you move away from Fishwick. 66.…read more

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Case Study 9 ­ Canada and Bangladesh
Category ­ Over and under population
Is Bangladesh overpopulated?
124 million inhabitants
953 people per km2
It has a high but falling birth rate of 30/1000 in 1998.
Fertility rate of 4 per women in 1998.
Falling death rate of 11/1000 in 1998.
Over 44% of the population is under 15 years of age.
GDP of $240 p.c.
40% of the population live in poverty and intake less than 2122 calories per day.…read more



Brilliant resource that has detailed information on the entire AS AQA GEOG1 paper. I seriously could not recommend this enough to other students, as it really helps to in both Case Studies and the understanding of the subject.

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