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Population Change
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) is the number of children born per thousand people per year.

Crude Death Rate (CDR) is the number of deaths per thousand people per year.

Total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children each woman has.

Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the…

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Food technology has increased nutrition and balanced diets and reduced famine and obesity. The development of golden rice
increased vitamin E content for areas where of low nutrition.
Pharmaceutical developments have reduced mortality. The development of penicillin in 1928 saw an increase in life
expectancy as it became more available.…

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Stage 5 ­CDR>CBR:
Birth rate begins to decline even further while death rate remains stable and the population begins to decrease e.g. Japan and
Birth rate decreases because children are so expensive to raise and many people have dependent elderly relatives.
Death rates remain steady as there are more…

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3. Falling birth and death rates. More people live to be elderly.

4. Low birth and Death rates. High life expectancy and lots of elderly people.

5. Birth rate drops below death rates and population declines. The number of elderly people increases.

Impacts of an ageing population:
Increased pressure…

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Limiting the immigration of younger people
Encouraging family planning and the use of contraception.
Increasing the provision of childcare.

Migration is the movement of people within or between countries. Immigration is the movement into an area and emigration is the
movement of people out of an area. Migration alters population…

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The gov. is trying to introduce contraceptive use and family planning. Currently, contraceptive use of married women is less than
Free condoms.
New policies introducing family planning clinics allow women to plan how many children they want and when they will have them.
Birth rate has increased since 1991…

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Category: Government policies

China enforced the `one child policy' in 1978, which restricted the number of children any family can have to one. It was designed to
alleviate pressure on the environment and the economy. Before the policy was introduced, it had been predicted the population would
have reached 2…

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British people prefer the lifestyle of other countries and emigrate.
High dominance of males as it is mostly males who migrate to seek employment.
Discrimination against ethnic groups and minorities.
Control against immigration wanted.
Anger at government for letting the migrants in.

Source Country (Poland):


Remittances are…

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Suburban area.
Terraced housing to the east of the ward and to the west there are larger semi detached souses with gardens that border Ashton
Lane ends shopping center with over 40 shops.
There are many bus stops with frequent services to the city center.

The percent of privately…

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Case Study 9 ­ Canada and Bangladesh
Category ­ Over and under population

Is Bangladesh overpopulated?
124 million inhabitants
953 people per km2
It has a high but falling birth rate of 30/1000 in 1998.
Fertility rate of 4 per women in 1998.
Falling death rate of 11/1000 in 1998.…




Brilliant resource that has detailed information on the entire AS AQA GEOG1 paper. I seriously could not recommend this enough to other students, as it really helps to in both Case Studies and the understanding of the subject.

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