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BASIC BIOLOGY (BACKGROUND)
The human genome contains the complete
genetic instructions for human physiology
and constitution.
Scientists have discovered ways of altering
the genes to possess desirable qualities/
remove undesirable qualities.
Successes are limited but as knowledge
increases so will their abilities to manipulate
genes and being able to alter/replace
defective ones to prevent the ocurrence of
inherited diseases (e.g. Sickle cell anaemia,
haemophilia, CF).…read more

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DEFINITION
Genetic engineering/ GM/ Gene splicing-
process of manipulating genes. Involves
isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of
DNA to cells in order to introduce new
characteristics.…read more

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GENE THERAPY
Technique for correcting defective genes
that are responsible for disease.
There are several approaches:
-normal gene inserted to non-specific
location within genome to replace
non-functional gene.
-abnormal gene swapped for normal
-abnormal gene repaired through selective
reverse mutation which returns the gene to
its normal function.
- regulation (whether gene on or off) of a
particular gene could be altered.…read more

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TYPES OF GENE THERAPY
Somatic gene therapy: only alters cells of
that person
Germ line therapy: alters persons germ cells
(sperm and egg) also. Therefore the new
characteristics are passed on in
reproduction.…read more

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CLONING 3 TYPES:
1) DNA Cloning:
strands of DNA cloned and reproduced to
study and gain further knowledge of the
human genome.
2) Therapeutic Cloning: (also embryo cloning)
production of human embryos for use in
research. The goal is to harvest stem cells that
can be used to study human development and
treat disease.
3) Reproductive cloning:
technology to generate an animal (or
plant/human) that has the same nuclear DNA
as another currently or previously existing
animal,plant or human.…read more

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