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Most of a cell's DNA is not translated
Totipotent cells are cells that can mature into any body cell.…read more

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Totipotent cells occur only for a limited time in mammalian embryos. Multipotent
cells are found in mature mammals. They can divide to form only a limited number of different cell types.…read more

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In mature plants many cells remain totipotent. They have the ability to develop
in vitro into whole plants or into plant organs given the correct conditions.…read more

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Totipotent and multipotent stem cells can be used in treating some genetic disorders.…read more

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Candidates should be able to
· interpret data relating to tissue culture of plants from samples of totipotent cells
· evaluate the use of stem cells in treating human disorders.
Stem Cell Therapies Treating Diseases Ethical Issues
Stem cells can divide into any Spinal cord injuries ­ to replace Involves destruction of an embryo which could become a
cell type, so could be used to damaged nerve tissue. foetus if placed in a womb.
replace cells damaged by illness
or injury.…read more

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All the cells in an organism carry the same genes but the structure and
function of cell varies, because not all genes are expressed. Due to this,
different proteins are made which modify the cell.
Gene expression can be switched on and off by other genes, stimuli and
The reason why different cells express different genes is because they
contain different transcription factors and different repressors.…read more

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The effect of oestrogen on gene
The effect of oestrogen on gene transcription…read more

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Small interfering as a short, of
that interfer with the of a specific
The effect of siRNA on gene expression…read more

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Candidates should be able to
· interpret data provided from investigations into gene expression
· interpret information relating to the use of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes in the prevention, treatment and cure o f cancer
· evaluate the effect on diagnosis and treatment of disorders caused by hereditary mutations and those caused by acquired mutations.…read more


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