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Gene Expression
AQA Unit 5 Biology
Frihah Parvaiz

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Most of a cell's DNA is not translated
Totipotent cells are cells that can mature into any body cell.
During development, totipotent cells translate only part of their DNA, resulting in cell specialisation

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Totipotent cells occur only for a limited time in mammalian embryos. Multipotent
cells are found in mature mammals. They can divide to form only a limited number of different cell types.

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In mature plants many cells remain totipotent. They have the ability to develop
in vitro into whole plants or into plant organs given the correct conditions.

Process of plant tissue culture

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Totipotent and multipotent stem cells can be used in treating some genetic disorders.

In vitro cloning of human embryonic cells

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Candidates should be able to
· interpret data relating to tissue culture of plants from samples of totipotent cells
· evaluate the use of stem cells in treating human disorders.

Stem Cell Therapies Treating Diseases Ethical Issues

Stem cells can divide into any Spinal cord injuries ­ to replace Involves…

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All the cells in an organism carry the same genes but the structure and
function of cell varies, because not all genes are expressed. Due to this,
different proteins are made which modify the cell.

Gene expression can be switched on and off by other genes, stimuli and


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The effect of oestrogen on gene

The effect of oestrogen on gene transcription

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Small interfering as a short, of
that interfer with the of a specific


The effect of siRNA on gene expression

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Candidates should be able to
· interpret data provided from investigations into gene expression
· interpret information relating to the use of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes in the prevention, treatment and cure o f cancer
· evaluate the effect on diagnosis and treatment of disorders caused by hereditary mutations…


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