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Gender
The Role of Genes and Hormones:
Genes:
Each individual has 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell of their body where each of these carries hundreds of genes
containing instructions on physical and behavioural characteristics. One pair of chromosomes in particular is
responsible for determining the individuals sex i.e.…

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Geschwind and Galaburda (1987) found that sex differences may be caused by the effects of testosterone
levels on the developing brain. Exposure to male hormones creates a masculinised brain.

AO2 Evaluation Points:
Deterministic: this approach is all about biological determinism of gender where it states that our genetic makeup
determines…

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moving camp, light work and looking after children. This provides a real world application of the division of labour
and the different gender roles between men and women.

Mate Choice:
Many gender role behaviours are linked to mate choice which has the effect of trying to maximise the reproductive
success…

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Deterministic: The evolutionary approach assumes that all behaviour is pre-determined and that our genes
determine the gender roles we take on. It also fails to consider that there are other factors such as social influences
(whether it is cultural influences or personal preference) which could also affect the gender roles…

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2. Mate Choice: What men and women look for in a partner is related to social roles rather than their reproductive
value. The physical differences lead to different social roles i.e. men are the providers and women take on
domestic roles. Women maximise their outcomes by selecting a man who…

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gender constancy where they do not understand that gender is consistent across situations for example they
believe that male may change into females if seen doing a female activity ­ they are still influenced by external
appearances.
a. Slaby and Fray (1975) found that when children were asked "when you…

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Martin and Little (1990) found young children (under the age of 4) showed strong stereotypes but no gender
stability or constancy. This suggests that they are acquiring information about gender roles before Kohlberg
suggested therefore providing support for the gender schema theory.
Martin and Halverson (1983) found that when children…

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This explanation states that gender dysphoria is a mental illness as a result of childhood trauma or maladaptive
upbringing.
Coates et al (1991) produced a case study of a boy who developed gender identity disorder. They said this was a
defence reaction to his mother having depression which happened when…

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b. Recent findings have found that differences in BSTc between males and females do not become apparent
until adulthood, where most transsexuals report feelings of gender dysphoria in early childhood. This
suggests that differences in BSTc sizes aren't the cause of gender dysphoria but may be an effect.

AO2 Evaluation…

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The main sources of influence come from parents, peers, schools and the media. They may involve direct and/or
indirect reinforcement as well as modelling.
1. The influence of parents: parents reinforce behaviour that they deem to be gender-appropriate in their children.
This is often done by differential reinforcement where children…

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