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Assumptions- children must learn gender roles and behaviour as they
Stages; stage 1: Gender Identity (2-3) - children have an immature view on
gender but can correctly label themselves male or female.
Stages; Stage 2: Gender Stability (3-4) ­ Children can correctly label
whether they will be a man or a women when they are older.
Stages; Stage 3: Gender Consistency (4-7) ­ Children realise that changing
appearance will not alter a person's gender.…read more

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Halverson's Schema Theory
Assumptions- child is active in gender, children acquire gender identity then build
schemas, schemas start ages 2-3, and children don't need consistency.
Schemas: conceptual clusters of information formed from past experiences to
make sense of the future.
Toys, games, clothes all fit into stereotypical gender categories.
In-group- first group of schemas formed. Attitudes and expectations of own
Out-group- Attitudes and expectations of opposite gender.…read more

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Social Contexts
Stems from cognitive theory
Media: radio TV films magazines
TV shows- bananas in PJ's (phallic object) Rosanne (Buffoon Stereotype).
-Lawer- Studied TV and gender roles in TV and found males where more
-Ofcom- 70% of children has a television in their bedroom. The average child
spends 15 hours per week watching television.
-Social Learning Theory- Observation, Imitation & Reinforcement.
E.g. Boy and girl twins apply makeup dad negative reinforces boy and positively
reinforces the girl.…read more

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Biological Influences
Genetics- female XX males XY, 23rd pair is gender.
Hormone Gonadol development- critical period (7 weeks) grow as a girl unless Y is present and
testosterone turns embryo into a boy. Sometimes too much testosterone XYY or too much
oestrogen XXX
Androgen insensitivity syndrome- males who are not responsive to testosterone grow to be a
female but are genetically male. Usually leads to infertility.
Hormones- testosterone effects growth of SDN which gives you your gender orientation.…read more

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Survival of the fittest- pass down genes
Mutant Genes- jealousy, to stand straight, gender dysphoria.
Old to new- MEN: strong, tall athletic to hunt. WOMEN: Emotional, mothering
New- MEN: spatial skills. WOMEN: Multi-tasking.
Mating Strategies MEN- unsure of paternity, evolved to be promiscuous, high
sperm count, go for fertile women.
Mating Strategies WOMEN- sure of maternity, 300 chances to conceive, more
selective, look for status, security and wealth.
Investment MEN: Prenatal- sperm and sex identity, Postnatal- resources.…read more

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Hormones- brain malfunction or overexposure in the womb.
Genetics- androgen receptor sites, control production and regulation of
hormones. XX, XXY.
Attachment theory- wrong primary care giver.
Psychodynamic- incomplete or disrupted.
Family Dynamics- no male, too close to mum or psychiatric mother.
Lorenz- He found evidence for the attachment theory. He conducted an animal
research experiment on baby chicks and found they would attach to them if they
could see him in their first few hours of life.
Hare- He found evidence for genetics.…read more

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Alaska freely changes regularly. Handsome males are
females and pretty girls are males.
Meads New Guinea- participant observation. 3 Tribes- Arapesh (feminine)
Mundugamor (masculine) Tchambuli (reverse UK).
6 Culture Study- N.America, Japan, Kenya, Philippines, Indian & Mexico. 17
researchers, 500 families, 5 mins a day. Every child taught gender roles.
Kenya was strongest and learnt them earliest. Kenya spends 41% time
working, N.America spends 2%.…read more


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