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Kohlberg


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Assumptions- children must learn gender roles and behaviour as they
mature.
Stages; stage 1: Gender Identity (2-3) - children have an immature view on
gender but can correctly label themselves male or female.
Stages; Stage 2: Gender Stability (3-4) ­ Children can correctly label
whether they will…

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Halverson's Schema Theory


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Assumptions- child is active in gender, children acquire gender identity then build
schemas, schemas start ages 2-3, and children don't need consistency.
Schemas: conceptual clusters of information formed from past experiences to
make sense of the future.
Toys, games, clothes all fit into stereotypical gender…

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Social Contexts
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Stems from cognitive theory
Media: radio TV films magazines
TV shows- bananas in PJ's (phallic object) Rosanne (Buffoon Stereotype).
-Lawer- Studied TV and gender roles in TV and found males where more
dominant.
-Ofcom- 70% of children has a television in their bedroom. The average child…

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Biological Influences

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Genetics- female XX males XY, 23rd pair is gender.
Hormone Gonadol development- critical period (7 weeks) grow as a girl unless Y is present and
testosterone turns embryo into a boy. Sometimes too much testosterone XYY or too much
oestrogen XXX
Androgen insensitivity syndrome- males who…

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Survival of the fittest- pass down genes
Mutant Genes- jealousy, to stand straight, gender dysphoria.
Old to new- MEN: strong, tall athletic to hunt. WOMEN: Emotional, mothering
nurturing.
New- MEN: spatial skills. WOMEN: Multi-tasking.
Mating Strategies MEN- unsure of paternity, evolved to be promiscuous, high
sperm count, go for…

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Hormones- brain malfunction or overexposure in the womb.
Genetics- androgen receptor sites, control production and regulation of
hormones. XX, XXY.
Attachment theory- wrong primary care giver.
Psychodynamic- incomplete or disrupted.
Family Dynamics- no male, too close to mum or psychiatric mother.

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Lorenz- He found evidence for the attachment…

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(masculine females). Alaska freely changes regularly. Handsome males are
females and pretty girls are males.
Meads New Guinea- participant observation. 3 Tribes- Arapesh (feminine)
Mundugamor (masculine) Tchambuli (reverse UK).
6 Culture Study- N.America, Japan, Kenya, Philippines, Indian & Mexico. 17
researchers, 500 families, 5 mins a day. Every child…

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