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Gender Gap in Achievement
· ON STARTING SCHOOL- children are given baseline assessments, where
the teachers tests what the child knows and can understand. In a National
survey on test scores, girls scored higher and girls have a longer
concentration span than boys by 13%. Similarly, 56% of girls could write
their name correctly whilst only 42% boys could do the same. 70% of
children classed as having special needs are boys.
· AT KEY STAGE 1- 3- girls do consistently better than boys, especially in
English, where the gender achievement gap widens. In science and maths,
they gap is narrower but girls still tend to do better.
· AT GCSE- gender gap is 10% better for girls than boys.
· AT A/ AS LEVELS- girls are more likely to pass and get better grades but
the gap in narrower. For example, in 20006, 95.8% of girls passed with 2 or
more A levels as against 94% boys. At this level girls are more likely to get
A, B and C even in boys subjects such as science and maths. The average
A level point score was 274 for boys and 295 for girls.
· ON VOCATIONAL COURSES- A larger proportion of girls get distinction
compared to boys in many subjects, even in engineering where girls are a
minority in the class.…read more

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External Factors…read more

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The Impact of Feminism
· Feminism has made the biggest impacts since the 1960'
s
· Feminists argue that we have not yet achieved complete
gender equality, but they have improved women's right
and laws against women. This changes have had
women's self esteem raised and higher expectations of
themselves.
· McRobbie (1994) compared girl's magazines in the 70's
and 90's and discovered that girls' future plans and
subjects of importance have changed. 70's= marriage,
children, boyfriends, looks etc. 90's= job orientated, good
results from exams, independence.…read more

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Changes in the Family
· There have been major changes in the family
since the 1970's such as; increase in divorce
and cohabitation, decrease in marriage, more
lone- parent families and smaller family sizes.
· These changes have affected girls' achievement
in many ways. For example, women becoming
more independent and becoming the main
breadwinner has meant a stronger role model for
girls meaning that they aspire to be like their
mother and try hard in school which increases
their results etc.…read more

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Changes In Women's Employment
· There has been many important changes in women's employment in the
last few decades. These include:
· 1970 EQUAL PAY ACT: makes it illegal to pay women less money than
men when doing equal work.
· 1975 SEX DISCRIMINATION ACT: outlaws sexual discrimination in
employment
· The proportion of women in employment over the last 60 years has
increased by 23% . The growth of the service sector and flexi- time work
means that women have more opportunities, whilst `mens' jobs have
declined.
· Since 1975, the pay gap between men and women has fallen by 13%.
· Some women are breaking through the glass ceiling and are in managerial
and other high standard jobs.
· These changes have seen that girls can have a future being independent
and in paid work instead of being a housewife. These incentives drive girls
to get better qualified jobs.…read more

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