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Slide 2

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Biological Explanation.
States any difference in gender is due to difference in hormonal activity. Bio
psychologists seek to explain gender differences in terms of chromosomal
difference, difference in hormonal activity and difference in the structure
and function of the brain.
Chromosomal differences.
Typical chromosome: A
Atypical s chromosome:
normal body has 23 pairs
anything other than xx
of chromosomes and each
and xy is known as
pair controls different
atypical and it may
characteristics. The 23rd
result in klinefelters
pair controls the biological
syndrome or Turners
s of a person. Xx-female
and xy-male.…read more

Slide 3

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Hormonal Influences:
Chemical substances secreted by the glands.
Men and women have s chromosomes but in different amounts.
Testosterone. is a predominately male
hormone. Affects behaviour and development
before and after birth. In the 5th month of
foetus development it is secreted into the Oestrogen: is a female hormone it is
glands to help in the development of external responsible for developing FM sexual
s organs. The psychological affects are characteristics and menstruation. As well
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. as physical changes which occur due to this
some psychological and behavioural effects
have been reported e.g. Premenstrual
Syndrome and Premenstrual tension which
can lead to higher emotionality and
aggression levels.…read more

Slide 4

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Social Learning Theory (SLT)
According to Bandura 1986. most complex behaviours are learnt as result of
copying. The following four stages have been told:
1. Imitation. There is no relation between imitator and imitated. Simple
observation can be sufficient to take place.
2. Reinforcement: if a child performs a good behaviour and gets a reward
for doing so he or she will mostly likely repeat the behaviour.
3. Identification: if a child sees him/herself as similar to someone he/she
will aspire to be like the person they think is similar to them.
4. Modelling: if a child recognises someone as a role model they will try and
be like them.…read more

Slide 5

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Cognitive approach.
This tries to explain gender from the point of view of how the
child understands gender. It was first told by Kohlberg 1966.
The following three stages are recognised.
Gender Identity Gender Stability
2-3yrs Gender Constancy
3-4 yrs child still doesn't
The child doesn't understand understands gender stays the 4-7 yrs child realises
gender stays constant through same throughout situations. still gender stays same
all times and situations. Rely on relies heavily on superficial throughout all situations
external appearances such as things. Realises gender stays and times despites
clothes. But can label girl, boy constant. superficial changes.
ect. Can apply own and others s
correctly.…read more


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