Gender and Inequality


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Gender and Inequality
Number of female workers rose by 2.45million in the last 30years.
Hakim 1979
`men and woman do different types of work, so one can speak of two
separate labour forces, one male and one female, which are not in
competition with each other for the same jobs'
Men and woman `crowd' into different types of jobs in different sectors of
the economy
Horizontal segregation:
Woman are mainly employed in health and education within the public
80% and 72% of the work force respectively.
Woman are mainly employed in retain and personal service, such as
catering, in the private sector.
There is evidence of a breakdown of this type of segregation, because of
the decline in the traditional male sectors, and the increase in higher
education for woman.
o This may have negative implications for woman in terms of vertical
o There is some evidence that men might be moving into more
traditionally female roles such as nursing, primary school teaching.
I.e. 50% of male primary teachers were head teachers;
whereas only 15% of female teachers were head teachers.
Vertical segregation:
Skills and Status
o With each occupational layer, women tend to be concentrated at
the lower levels.

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The Glass Ceiling
Woman can only climb the ladder so far but they reach a
barrier where they can see where they want to go but cannot
reach it.
o In 2004: 58% of professionals were male; 67% of mangers and senior
officials were male.
o In 2004: 8.3% of senior judges and police officers were woman; 9.1%
of national news paper editors were woman.
o Virtually no change from the mid-1990
In 2004 it was 18% lower.…read more

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In 1999, woman in part time work earned, on average, 60% of the
average hourly pay of full-time employees.
What about men?
Evidence of some change in work for men, practically working class men.
o This is caused by recession and the decline in traditional industries
and manufacturing
Mac An Ghaill 1996
o Led to a general crises of masculinity
Willott and Griffin 1996
o They researched a group of long term unemployed men in the west
midland.…read more

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And thus are able to command higher pay
Dual-labour Market theory
Barron and Norris 1976
o The labour market is divided into two sectors:
The primary sector
consisting of secure, well paid jobs, with good prospects
A secondary sector
o Characterized by poor pay, insecurity and no ladder of promotion.
More women found here
Woman's `unsuitability'.…read more

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Although this has improved now
Evaluation of dual labour-market theory
It stresses that the social organization of work in Western societies is
essentially patriarchal, with men in the positions of power.
It undermined the popular assumption that better qualifications and
increased ambition for women would automatically dismantle gender
divisions in employment.
o Woman with the same qualifications as men will continue to be
disadvantaged as long as these two sectors are allowed to exist are
underpinned with patriarchal assumptions about the role of women.…read more

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Although there is evidence that gender roles are socially constructed, it
does not explain why this leads to men dominating and women being
It applies that people passively accept their gender roles, underestimating
the degree to which women may resist
It fails to acknowledge the difference between race and class when it
comes to experiences
In seeing gender equalities as simply a matter of time, real obstacles to
progress are being overlooked.…read more

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They give their husbands emotional support so they feel able to go back to work
Socialise their children into capitalist ideals.…read more


Abidha Ahmed

Thank you!!

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