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Gender and Inequality
Number of female workers rose by 2.45million in the last 30years.

Hakim 1979
`men and woman do different types of work, so one can speak of two
separate labour forces, one male and one female, which are not in
competition with each other for the same jobs'…

Page 2

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o The Glass Ceiling
Woman can only climb the ladder so far but they reach a
barrier where they can see where they want to go but cannot
reach it.
o In 2004: 58% of professionals were male; 67% of mangers and senior
officials were male.
o In 2004: 8.3%…

Page 3

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o In 1999, woman in part time work earned, on average, 60% of the
average hourly pay of full-time employees.
What about men?

Evidence of some change in work for men, practically working class men.
o This is caused by recession and the decline in traditional industries
and manufacturing

Page 4

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And thus are able to command higher pay

Dual-labour Market theory

Barron and Norris 1976
o The labour market is divided into two sectors:
The primary sector
consisting of secure, well paid jobs, with good prospects
A secondary sector
o Characterized by poor pay, insecurity and no ladder of promotion.…

Page 5

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Although this has improved now

Evaluation of dual labour-market theory


It stresses that the social organization of work in Western societies is
essentially patriarchal, with men in the positions of power.
It undermined the popular assumption that better qualifications and
increased ambition for women would automatically dismantle gender

Page 6

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Although there is evidence that gender roles are socially constructed, it
does not explain why this leads to men dominating and women being
It applies that people passively accept their gender roles, underestimating
the degree to which women may resist
It fails to acknowledge the difference between race…

Page 7

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They give their husbands emotional support so they feel able to go back to work

Socialise their children into capitalist ideals.


Abidha Ahmed


Thank you!!

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