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Gender & differences in
educational achievement
AS Sociology, Education…read more

Slide 2

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THE Girls do better in most aspects of education
and the gap has increased
FACTS: =>2006/2007 = 65% girls achieved 5+ A*-C
GCSE's & boys = 55%
1985/ 1986 = 27% girls & 25% boys..
Starting school National survey of 6,953 children. Authority found that girls
scored higher in all tests ­ 62% girls could concentrate without
supervision for 10mins while only 49% boys could do this (=
70% children with educational needs = boys)
Key stages 1-3 Girls could do consistently better than boys. Especially in
English where gender gap widens with age. In science and
maths ­ gap is narrower but girls still do better.
GCSE In 2006/ 2007 => 65% girls gained 5+ A*-C GCSE's
= 55% of boys =>1994/1995 => 48% girls & 39% boys =>
1985/1986 => 27% girls & 25% boys
AS + A LEVEL Girls more likely to pass + get higher grades ­ gap narrower
than at GCSE ­ 2006 = 95.8% girls passed 2+ a levels 94%
boys. At AS + A level, girls more likely to gain A,B,C grades
even in `boy' subjects such as science + maths ­ average A
level point score: 295 = girls & 274 = boys.…read more

Slide 3

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External factors affecting
girls' achievement
Changes in Girls changing
The impact of Changes in
women's perceptions &
feminism the family
employment ambitions…read more

Slide 4

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The impact of feminism...
Challenged: Feminist movement began
Traditional stereotype of women' around the 1960's
s role as solely that of a mother/
housewife &the idea they are
inferior to men outside the home
in work, education and the law.
McRobbie's study:
Compared girls' magazines in the 1970's and Improved women's rights + opportunities
1990'x. In 1970's magazines (such as Jackie) through challenges in law
emphasised the importance of getting married Raised women's expectations + self
and not being `left on the shelf'. Nowadays esteem reflected in media images &
(1990's) they contain images of assertive, messages
independent women = highlighting the
importance of self esteem and personal choice
Affected girls' self image & ambitions
for young women. (improved)…read more

Slide 5

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Changes in women's
Change: Effects:
Equal Pay Act 1970 & Sex Discrimination Makes it illegal to pay women less than men for work
of equal value. Outlaws sex discrimination in work
Act 1975 place.
Proportion of women in employment Has risen from 47% in 1959 to over 70% in 2007.
growth of the service sector & flexible part time work
has offered opportunities for women while traditional
men's roles have declined.
Pay gap Pay gap between men and women has fallen from 30%
to 17%.
Level of progression Some women are now breaking through the `glass
ceiling' ­ meaning they can now be in high level and
managerial jobs ­ no longer restricted to that extent.…read more

Slide 6

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Girls changing ambitions...
=>compared results of interviews she conducted with girls in the 1970's
and 1990's. Findings show a major shift in the way girls saw themselves
+ future. In 1974 girls interviewed had low aspirations = felt educational
success was unfeminine and unattractive = priorities ­ love, marriage,
husband, children, job, career.
In 1990's , girls ambitions had changed & had different order of
priorities = careers & being able to support themselves as top. Girls
more likely to see future as independent woman.
Unstructured interviews = rich qualitative data that gave valid picture
of their feelings etc
As unstructured interview = data not easily analysed and hard to
establish correlations
Interviewer may unintentionally influence interviewee's answer…read more

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