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Electromagnetic spectrum
Gamma* x-rays* UV* visible IR micro radio
Increasing wavelength
Increasing frequency/penetrating power/
likelihood of ionisation (see*)/
cell damage…read more

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Using models
· Ray
· Wave
· Photon…read more

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Ionising Radiation
· Radiation where the photons have enough
energy to knock electrons off the atom
changing it into a positively charged ion.
atom Ion
(no charge) (positively
This will now react
with other atoms e.g.
Lost electron DNA damage…read more

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Safety with radiation
· UV
­ Sun-creams of varying spf
­ Clothing ·Two approaches to
­ "Slip, slap, slop" safety...
Precautionary Principle...
· Micro removing a group from a
­ Metal screens potential risk just in case!
ALARA principle [as low as
· Gamma/ x-rays reasonably achievable]
­ Lead screens accepting risk but taking
measures to minimise it!…read more

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Factors affecting the damaging
effects of radiation
· Energy of photon [packet of radiated
· Intensity [number of photons arriving per
· Duration of exposure
· Medium through which the radiation
travels (some absorb more than others)
· Distance from source…read more

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