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Page 1

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General properties of waves:




a=

amplitude


Amplitude: The maximum distance moved from the rest position

Frequency: The number of waves produced in one second

Wavelength: The straight line distance from on wave to the same part on the next
wave.


FREQUENCY = NUMBER OF WAVES
TIME TAKEN


WAVESPEED = FREQUENCY…

Page 2

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In a longitudinal
wave the
oscillations are
going in the
same direction
as the direction of
energy transfer.



Electromagnetic Waves


Similarities in EM waves:
All EM waves are transverse
EM waves can travel through a vacuum
All travel at the speed of light


Differences in EM waves:
Different wavelengths
Different…

Page 3

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Xray
Glasses




Dangers of EM waves:

UV ­ can cause skin damage/cancer

Microwaves ­ used in cooking, energy absorbed by water

Gamma rays ­ Ionises living cells

Visible light ­ can damage your eyes

X-ray ­ ionises living cells


Reflection


The angle of incidence is equal to the angle
of…

Page 4

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On entering the block the light angles
towards the normal because its speed
decreases. On leaving the block the
light speed increases and the ray
angles away from the normal.

Light slows down in glass and speeds
up in air


Depth of water and rate of
refraction

Deeper water has…

Page 5

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Diffraction is when a wave passes through a gap round an object and the wave
spreads out.




Longer wavelength
diffracts more, shorter
wavelength diffracts less.




Sound

Sound waves are produced when something vibrates backwards and forwards.
There are n o particles in a vacuum so they cannot travel through a…

Page 6

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Reflected ­ we call this an echo
Refracted
Diffracted ­ spreads out around buildings, hills etc.


Frequency and pitch

Low amplitude = quieter
High amplitude = louder

Low frequency = low pitch and long wavelength
High frequency = short wavelength and high pitch

Speed of Sound m/s
In air 350m/s…

Page 7

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observer the sound waves get close together and the frequency gets higher so the
pitch gets higher.

2) As the vehicle recedes from the observer the sound waves spread further apart
and the wavelength gets bigger so the sound gets lower.


As well as observing sound waves, the Doppler Effect…

Page 8

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The expansion of the universe is said to slow down, stop and then counteract
ending in the big crunch.

The theory is supported by red shift and Hubble's law




Energy

Page 9

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Energy can exist in different forms

Amounts of energy can be measured in JOULES (J)




Conservation of Energy


ENERGY CAN NEVER BE CREATED OR DESTROYED, ONLY
CHANGED FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER!




Efficiency




Wasted energy spreads out or dilutes into the surrounding
atmosphere/environment.



Generating Electricity

Main components of a typical…

Page 10

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Non-Renewable Energy Resources

Non-renewable resource Positive Minus
Coal Cheap, 100 years left to Produces most CO and
use. Easy to get a hold of. SO. More COper unit of
Quicker start up time than energy than oil or gas. SO
nuclear power stations. cause acid rain. Most
polluting.
Oil Easy…

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