GCSE Physics AQA Unit 1

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General properties of waves:
a=
amplitude
Amplitude: The maximum distance moved from the rest position
Frequency: The number of waves produced in one second
Wavelength: The straight line distance from on wave to the same part on the next
wave.
FREQUENCY = NUMBER OF WAVES
TIME TAKEN
WAVESPEED = FREQUENCY X WAVELENGTH
Transverse Wave:
In a transverse
wave the
oscillations
are at 90° to
the direction of
energy
transfer.
Longitudinal Wave:

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In a longitudinal
wave the
oscillations are
going in the
same direction
as the direction of
energy transfer.…read more

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Xray
Glasses
Dangers of EM waves:
UV ­ can cause skin damage/cancer
Microwaves ­ used in cooking, energy absorbed by water
Gamma rays ­ Ionises living cells
Visible light ­ can damage your eyes
X-ray ­ ionises living cells
Reflection
The angle of incidence is equal to the angle
of reflection
In a virtual image rays appear to have come
from the image but in fact they are not. A
real image is formed when rays do actually
meet.…read more

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On entering the block the light angles
towards the normal because its speed
decreases. On leaving the block the
light speed increases and the ray
angles away from the normal.
Light slows down in glass and speeds
up in air
Depth of water and rate of
refraction
Deeper water has a greater wavelength than shallow water so the speed of a
shallow wave will decrease compared to a deep wave because the wavelength is
shorter in the shallow end.…read more

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Diffraction is when a wave passes through a gap round an object and the wave
spreads out.
Longer wavelength
diffracts more, shorter
wavelength diffracts less.
Sound
Sound waves are produced when something vibrates backwards and forwards.
There are n o particles in a vacuum so they cannot travel through a vacuum. They're
longitudinal waves, this means the oscillations go in the same direction as energy
transfer.…read more

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Reflected ­ we call this an echo
Refracted
Diffracted ­ spreads out around buildings, hills etc.
Frequency and pitch
Low amplitude = quieter
High amplitude = louder
Low frequency = low pitch and long wavelength
High frequency = short wavelength and high pitch
Speed of Sound m/s
In air 350m/s
In water 1050m/s
In solids 5000m/s
Speed of light 300,000,000m/s
Sound travels faster in solids than gases because the particles are closer
together, so the vibrations can be transferred quicker.…read more

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As the vehicle recedes from the observer the sound waves spread further apart
and the wavelength gets bigger so the sound gets lower.
As well as observing sound waves, the Doppler Effect influences the wavelength of
light of moving stars and galaxies.
Absorption Spectra
When we look at galaxies
moving further away from us
the absorption lines have been
shifted to lower frequencies ie,
it has been red shifted. If the
galaxy was moving towards us
it would be blue shifted.…read more

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The expansion of the universe is said to slow down, stop and then counteract
ending in the big crunch.…read more

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Energy can exist in different forms
Amounts of energy can be measured in JOULES (J)
Conservation of Energy
ENERGY CAN NEVER BE CREATED OR DESTROYED, ONLY
CHANGED FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER!
Efficiency
Wasted energy spreads out or dilutes into the surrounding
atmosphere/environment.…read more

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Non-Renewable Energy Resources
Non-renewable resource Positive Minus
Coal Cheap, 100 years left to Produces most CO and
use. Easy to get a hold of. SO. More COper unit of
Quicker start up time than energy than oil or gas. SO
nuclear power stations. cause acid rain. Most
polluting.
Oil Easy to find. Quicker start Burning contributes to
up than nuclear. Enough global warming and acid
left to supply for rain. More CO per unit
short-medium term. than gas. Could spill and
pollute.…read more

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