GCSE OCR Music - New Syllabus (2010)

Full notes on the new syllabus

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  • Created on: 16-05-11 19:15
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GCSE OCR Music Notes
Baroque (1600 ­ 1750)
1. Approx. date: 17th and 18th Centuries (1600 and 1750)
2. Instruments: Violin, Viola, Cello, Harpsichord, Organ, Recorder, Flute, Oboe
3. Typical forms/structures: Opera, Oratorio, Fugue, Suite, Sonata, Concerto
4. Composers and their works/pieces:
Purcell ­ Dido and Aeneas
Vivaldi ­ The four seasons
J. S Bach ­ Mass in B Minor
Monteverdi ­ L'Orfeo
Handel ­ Messiah
Domenico Scarlatti ­ Keyboard Sonatas
J. S Bach ­ The well ­ tempered clavier
Romantic (1810 ­ 1900)
2. Instruments: Full Orchestra, Concert Grand Piano, Violin, Cor Anglais
3. Typical forms/structures: Opera, Music Drama, Programme Music, Song Cycles, Short Piano Pieces
4. Composers and their works/pieces:
Weber ­ Der FreischÜtz
Rossini ­ William Tell
Wagner ­ The flying Dutchman
Verdi ­ Aida
Schubert ­ Die schÖne MÜllerin
Chopin ­ Four Ballads and other piano music
Tchaikovsky ­ Swan Lake and Symphony no.6
5. Other details:
Romanticism in art, literature and music moved away from Classicism by allowing emotional content to
dominate form.

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Classical (1750 ­ 1810)
Melody:
o Simple
o Sometimes decorated with ornaments (trills, grace notes, mordent, turns)
Harmony:
o Simple
o no harsh dissonant chords
o based mostly on primary chords
Phrasing:
o Balanced
o regular 4 bar phrases
o Question and answer, not call and response.
Orchestra:
o Small orchestra,
o mostly strings with a few woodwind and brass,
o Percussion is mostly timpani playing tonic and dominant, also could include piano.…read more

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Set Music
Gamelan
Music from Indonesia (Bali and Java)
Based on cycles of melodies played at different speeds
Uses metallic instruments such as gong, metallophone and drums
Drums keep a steady beat ­ accompanies puppet shows ­ is not notated - pentatonic
Indian Classical Music
Much is based around improvisation
Raga: a group of notes like a scale that the melody is based on (sitar or sarangi)
Tabla plays rhythmic improvisations forms a tala first beat or the bar called a `sam'
Tala: a cycle…read more

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Rubato (slowing down and speeding up) is sometimes used although a steady beat is generally
needed to dance to the waltz.
Partner in a ballroom, formal, social occasion. Upper class dance to set steps.
Piano waltzes are common, but tend to be freer and therefore not suitable for dancing.…read more

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Sampling of other tracks
o Remixing old tracks
o Effects such as echo/reverb
o Sequencing and looping
Tango
March like, slow tempo
2/4 or 4/4
Dotted rhythms and syncopation
Sonero and Choro (call and response)
Parallel 3rds and 6th
1970s Disco
Began in the USA
120 beats per minute, fast tempo, usually 4/4 time
Four to the floor rhythms (accented 2 and 4 beats)
Use of hook lines and memorable melody
`Wah Wah pedal'
Simple verse and chord structures
Informal, relaxed dance in clubs or…read more

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Other Important Things
Key Signatures:
F 1 Flat
B flat 2 Flats
E flat 3 Flats (B, E, A)
G 1 Sharp
D 2 Sharps
A 3 Sharps (F, C, G)
Harmonies:
Diatonic
Dissonant
Atonal
Chromatic
Sub Dominant
`Blue' Note
Comping
Texture
Counterpoint, Contrapuntal, Polyphonic
Obbligato
Descant
Articulation
Legato/slurred
Pizzicato
Arco
Staccato
Tremolo
Accent
Rubato
Rallentando
Acellerando
Vocal Ranges
Soprano: Highest female voice
Alto: Lowest female voice
Tenor: Highest male voice
Baritone: between tenor and bass
Bass: lowest male voice
Structure:
Binary: AB
Ternary: ABA…read more

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Western popular styles
Irish Music
A jig is a performance dance usually in compound time (6/8) and is light and graceful (soft shoes)
hard jig is hard shoes
A reel is a social dance in simple time (2/4) is fast and uses angular movements
Has a relentless rhythm with tonic-dominant harmony
Stepwise melody with small intervals
Fiddle, bodhran, accordion, tin whistle, uilleann pipes and harp.…read more

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Serialism
Tone row (Prime order) includes all 12 chromatic pitches
20th century technique, made by Schoenberg
Detailed dynamics and articulation give serial melodies structure
Notes must always be heard in the correct order
Variations on tone row include:
o Inversion,
o Retrograde,
o Retrograde inversion
Atonal: no sense of tonic home note.…read more

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