GCSE Latin - The Aeneid translation and style notes

A translation of the Aeneid (or at least the parts we did) with style points after each section. Hopefully someone will find this useful. Good luck to anyone doing the exams, they're only a week or two away. Yippee. 

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The Aeneid

It was the time when sleep first begins for weary mortals and creeps [upon them]
most welcome as a gift from the gods.

In my sleep, behold, before my eyes most sorrowful Hector seemed to appear to
me and to pour forth plentiful tears, having been dragged along…

Page 2

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Pg 2

Meanwhile the city is thrown into confusion with grief and mourning everywhere,
and more and more, though the house of my father Anchises was secluded and set
back and hidden by trees, the sounds grow clear and the noisy alarm of battle
rushes on.

I am shaken from…

Page 3

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Then indeed the truth was clear and the treachery of the Greeks is revealed. Now
the spacious house of Deiphobus collapsed with fire overwhelming it, the house of
Calegon next door was burning; the broad Sigeum strait reflected back with fire.
And there arose shouts of men and the…

Page 4

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Pathos ­ one tree ­ many farmers ­ defenceless. Violence of attack ­ repetition of idea
"ferro accisam crebisque bipennibus" (cut into with iron and frequent axe blows) ­ brings out
ferocity of attack.

Personification of the tree ­ "comam" (hair/foliage), "nutat" (nods), vulneribus" (wounds) ­
heightens emotional impact.


Page 5

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Plural word used for singular "vidimus" (I have seen), "supervimus" (survived).

Melodramatic words "sic o sic" (thus oh thus) ­ raises emotional tone.

Imperative ­ Anchises' commanding tone ­ "discedite" (depart)

"adfati" (having bid farewell) ­ this word is usually used in a funerary context.

Erratic/varied sentence structure ­ Anchises…

Page 6

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If you depart about to die, take us with you into every eventuality; but if, having
learnt from experience you put some hope in the arms you have taken up, save this
house first. To whom is little Iulus left, to whom your father, to whom am I left,

Page 7

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"trepidare" (to run around in panic), "excutere" (shook out) and "restinuere" (extinguish) ­
3 historic ininitives ­ stands in for an alternative verb form, arresting.

Repetition to emphasise fear ­ "pavidi" (fearful), "metu" (fear) "tredpidare" (to run around in

Flames personified ­ "pasci" (graze), "lambere" (to lick) ­ very…

Page 8

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2x emphasises the gods' will "vestrum" (your) and "vestroque" (and your).

Highly rhetorical and repetitive.

Vivid present "volvunt" (roll)

Emphasis on the threat of fire "ignis" (fire), "aestus" (fires) "incendia" (flames).

"Come now dear father, set yourself on my neck, I myself will support you with my
shoulders, nor will…

Page 9

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3x words for ghostly appearance: "simulacrum" (likeness), "umbra" (ghost), "imago" (image)
­ emphasis on her insubstantial appearance.

"obstipui" (I was astounded) ­ strong verb and emphatically placed at the beginning of the

2x historic infinitives ­ brings out drama ­ "adfari" (she spoke) and "demere" (took away).

Very physical…

Page 10

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Pathos. Lots and lots of pathos.

Refers to herself in third person, also calling herself `beloved', which is a bit presumptuous,
and clearly, judging from Aeneas' actions, wrong. Heightens (melo)drama of the whole thing,
makes it sadder and whatnot.

Content stuff, i.e. she's being spared the humiliation of servitude and…


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