GCSE Latin - The Aeneid translation and style notes

A translation of the Aeneid (or at least the parts we did) with style points after each section. Hopefully someone will find this useful. Good luck to anyone doing the exams, they're only a week or two away. Yippee. 

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  • Created by: Arthur
  • Created on: 07-06-12 09:25
Preview of GCSE Latin - The Aeneid translation and style notes

First 258 words of the document:

The Aeneid
It was the time when sleep first begins for weary mortals and creeps [upon them]
most welcome as a gift from the gods.
In my sleep, behold, before my eyes most sorrowful Hector seemed to appear to
me and to pour forth plentiful tears, having been dragged along by a two horse
chariot, black with bloody dust and with thongs pulled through his swelling feet.
Oh my, what a state he was in, how changed to me from that Hector he returned
having dressed in the spoils of Achilles or having hurled Trojan fires at the Greek
ships.
He was bearing a filthy beard and hair matted with blood and those many wounds
which he received around his ancestral walls. First weeping, I myself seemed to
address the man and to utter sad words.
Style:
"Maestissimus" (most sorrowful) ­ superlative ­ high emphasis.
"Perque pedes traiectus lora tumentis." (with thongs pulled through his swelling feet) ­
reflects physical injury (ouchy) and even has a bit of alliteration thrown in there to draw
attention to the gory details.
"gratissima" (most welcome) and "maestissimus" (most sorrowful) ­ Juxtaposition of two
superlatives underneath each other, it does something or other.
"ecce" (behold) ­ imperative ­ striking, abrupt change of mood.
"ei mihi" (oh my) ­ outpouring of emotion, wimpy sissy girl.
Lotsa pathos in the gory description of Hector's wounds.

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Page 2

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Pg 2
Meanwhile the city is thrown into confusion with grief and mourning everywhere,
and more and more, though the house of my father Anchises was secluded and set
back and hidden by trees, the sounds grow clear and the noisy alarm of battle
rushes on.…read more

Page 3

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Pg3
Then indeed the truth was clear and the treachery of the Greeks is revealed. Now
the spacious house of Deiphobus collapsed with fire overwhelming it, the house of
Calegon next door was burning; the broad Sigeum strait reflected back with fire.
And there arose shouts of men and the noise of trumpets.…read more

Page 4

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Pathos ­ one tree ­ many farmers ­ defenceless. Violence of attack ­ repetition of idea
"ferro accisam crebisque bipennibus" (cut into with iron and frequent axe blows) ­ brings out
ferocity of attack.
Personification of the tree ­ "comam" (hair/foliage), "nutat" (nods), vulneribus" (wounds) ­
heightens emotional impact.
The divine assistance of Venus.…read more

Page 5

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Plural word used for singular "vidimus" (I have seen), "supervimus" (survived).
Melodramatic words "sic o sic" (thus oh thus) ­ raises emotional tone.
Imperative ­ Anchises' commanding tone ­ "discedite" (depart)
"adfati" (having bid farewell) ­ this word is usually used in a funerary context.
Erratic/varied sentence structure ­ Anchises feeble state again.
"Facilis iactura sepulcri" (the loss of a burial is easy to bear) ­ very short sentence for
emphasis, emphatically placed, shows his longing for death.…read more

Page 6

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If you depart about to die, take us with you into every eventuality; but if, having
learnt from experience you put some hope in the arms you have taken up, save this
house first. To whom is little Iulus left, to whom your father, to whom am I left,
once called your wife?
Style;
"ecce" (look) ­ imperative, arresting.
Repetition of the same idea "complexa" (having clasped) and "haerebat" (was clinging) ­
emphasises the desperation of Creusa.
Tricolon ­ "To whom...…read more

Page 7

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­
3 historic ininitives ­ stands in for an alternative verb form, arresting.
Repetition to emphasise fear ­ "pavidi" (fearful), "metu" (fear) "tredpidare" (to run around in
fear).
Flames personified ­ "pasci" (graze), "lambere" (to lick) ­ very soft and unthreatening. And
totally like a cow. Which shows that the whole epic was in fact social commentary on the
farming class in Roman society. Thanks Butcher.…read more

Page 8

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Highly rhetorical and repetitive.
Vivid present "volvunt" (roll)
Emphasis on the threat of fire "ignis" (fire), "aestus" (fires) "incendia" (flames).
"Come now dear father, set yourself on my neck, I myself will support you with my
shoulders, nor will that labour wear me down. However things will turn out there
will be one and the same danger, one salvation for us both. Let little Iulus be my
companion and let my wife follow my footsteps at a distance.…read more

Page 9

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­ emphasis on her insubstantial appearance.
"obstipui" (I was astounded) ­ strong verb and emphatically placed at the beginning of the
sentence.
2x historic infinitives ­ brings out drama ­ "adfari" (she spoke) and "demere" (took away).
Very physical and shocked reaction.…read more

Page 10

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Pathos. Lots and lots of pathos.
Refers to herself in third person, also calling herself `beloved', which is a bit presumptuous,
and clearly, judging from Aeneas' actions, wrong. Heightens (melo)drama of the whole thing,
makes it sadder and whatnot.
Content stuff, i.e. she's being spared the humiliation of servitude and being very pious about
it.…read more

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