GCSE Latin Syntax Notes

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GCSE Latin Syntax notes
1) Time expressions:
i) Time how long = accusative
duas horas in urbe manebamus = we stayed in the city for two days
ii) Time at which = ablative
Time within which = ablative
milites prima luce profecti sunt = the soldiers set off at dawn
amicus meus tribus diebus adveniet = my friend will arrive within/in three days
2) Comparison:
For comparative phrases (e.g. John is taller than James), Latin uses either:
i) Quam
puellae celeriores sunt quam pueri = the girls are faster than the boys
With quam, the two nouns being compared are in the same case.
ii) the ablative case without quam:
pueris celeriores sunt puellae = the girls are faster than the boys
3) Verbs and adjectives that take the dative:
i) Verbs:
The majority of Latin verbs use the accusative for their direct object. However, some are followed
by just a dative:
appropinquo: approach
credo: believe
faveo: favour
impero: order (+ ut/ne + subjunctive)
persuadeo: persuade (+ ut/ne + subjunctive)
resisto: resist
ii) Adjectives:
Some adjectives can be followed by the dative, e.g. similis `similar'

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Latin prepositions are followed either by the accusative or the ablative:
+ accusative + ablative
ad = to, towards, at a/ab = from, away from, by
ante = before cum = with
circum = around de = about, from
contra = against e/ex = out of, from
inter = among, between pro = in front of
per = through sine = without
post = after, behind
prope = near
propter = on account of, because of
trans = across
NB A few can take…read more

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The most common question words are:
cur: why?
qualis, -e: what sort of?
quam (with adj. or adv.): how?
quando: when? (NB only for questions; `when' in statements is ubi or cum)
quantus, -a, -um: how great? how much?
quis: who?; quid: what?
quomodo: how?
quot: how many?
ubi: where?
ii) Yes/no questions. For questions that can be answered by yes or no, add ­ne to the first
word of the question.…read more

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For deponents only, there is no perfect passive participle and instead:
Perfect active participle: secutus, -a, -um (like bonus) = having followed
Examples in practice:
Present participle = action happening at same time as main verb
per viam ambulantes, clamorem audivimus = while walking along the road, we heard a shout
Perfect passive participle = action that happened before the main verb
hostes victi lente discesserunt = the defeated enemy slowly departed (lit.…read more

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However, special care is needed when they refer to the future (e.g. `if you do this, you'll be punished'), as
Latin normally uses the future perfect for the `if' clause, the future for the `then' clause:
si hoc feceris, poenas dabis = if you do this, you'll be punished
11) Relative clauses:
Relative clauses are sentences with `who', `whom' or `that' (e.g. That is the man whom I saw yesterday).
The word for `who' or `whom' = qui quae quod (the relative pronoun).…read more

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NB In English, the translation of the second half changes if the speaking verb is in past time. The key
point is to think
about what tense the original direct statement was in (present, past or future).
13) cum + subjunctive = `when, since':
+ pluperfect subjunctive = when/since it had happened...
cum haec verba dixissent, exiit = when he had said these words, he left.
+ imperfect subjunctive = when/since it was happening...…read more

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Result clauses
A result clause shows the result of an action or a state of affairs (e.g. there were so many guards that
we could not escape). You can recognise one because of:
a) a signpost word
Signpost words for result clauses
tam + adjective or adverb So
tantus, ­a, ­um so large/great
Tot so many
Totiens so often
Talis, ­e of such a kind
Adeo + verb to such a degree/extent
Ita in such a way
b) ut (or ut...…read more

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Temporal clauses
Temporal clauses are clauses such as `when', `while' or `after'. These normally take an indicative verb
(except with cum (cf. Section 13)). There are a few extra details:
i) In sentences where ubi (where), postquam (after) or simulac (as soon as) refer to the past,
English tends
to use the pluperfect. Latin uses the perfect here:
simulac Romam adveni, tabernam intravi = as soon as I had arrived at Rome, I went into an inn
ii) dum `while'.…read more

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Causal clauses
Causal clauses are clauses with `because' or `since'. They can be expressed by:
i) quod = `because' + indicative
quod severus est, dominus a servis timetur = because he is strict, the master is feared by his slaves
ii) cum = `since' + subjunctive (see section 13))
20) Concessive clauses
Concessive clauses are clauses with `although' (quamquam).…read more


terry krigas

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