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GCSE Latin Syntax notes



1) Time expressions:

i) Time how long = accusative
duas horas in urbe manebamus = we stayed in the city for two days

ii) Time at which = ablative
Time within which = ablative
milites prima luce profecti sunt = the soldiers set off at dawn…

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4) Prepositions:

Latin prepositions are followed either by the accusative or the ablative:

+ accusative + ablative

ad = to, towards, at a/ab = from, away from, by

ante = before cum = with

circum = around de = about, from

contra = against e/ex = out of, from

inter…

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The most common question words are:

cur: why?

qualis, -e: what sort of?

quam (with adj. or adv.): how?

quando: when? (NB only for questions; `when' in statements is ubi or cum)

quantus, -a, -um: how great? how much?

quis: who?; quid: what?

quomodo: how?

quot: how many?

ubi: where?…

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For deponents only, there is no perfect passive participle and instead:

Perfect active participle: secutus, -a, -um (like bonus) = having followed

Examples in practice:

Present participle = action happening at same time as main verb

per viam ambulantes, clamorem audivimus = while walking along the road, we heard a…

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However, special care is needed when they refer to the future (e.g. `if you do this, you'll be punished'), as
Latin normally uses the future perfect for the `if' clause, the future for the `then' clause:

si hoc feceris, poenas dabis = if you do this, you'll be punished



11)…

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NB In English, the translation of the second half changes if the speaking verb is in past time. The key
point is to think

about what tense the original direct statement was in (present, past or future).



CONSTRUCTIONS USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE:

13) cum + subjunctive = `when, since':

+ pluperfect…

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17) Result clauses

A result clause shows the result of an action or a state of affairs (e.g. there were so many guards that

we could not escape). You can recognise one because of:

a) a signpost word

Signpost words for result clauses


tam + adjective or adverb So


tantus,…

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tot erant milites ut hostes non oppugnarent = there were so many soldiers that the enemy did not attack



18) Temporal clauses

Temporal clauses are clauses such as `when', `while' or `after'. These normally take an indicative verb

(except with cum (cf. Section 13)). There are a few extra details:…

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19) Causal clauses



Causal clauses are clauses with `because' or `since'. They can be expressed by:

i) quod = `because' + indicative

quod severus est, dominus a servis timetur = because he is strict, the master is feared by his slaves

ii) cum = `since' + subjunctive (see section 13))…

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terry krigas

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Very useful resource

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