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The Main Risks Of Surgery In
1845
· No anaesthetic
· No clean medical/surgical equipment
· No protective equipment
· No properly trained doctors
· Not wearing clean clothing when performing operations
· People watching the operations which spread disease and
distracted the doctors
· Unclean operating theatre
· No methods of pain relief
· The wooden operating table was difficult to clean…read more

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Inference Questions
· What the source suggests
· What impression does the source give
· What does the source show…read more

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Inference Question Answer
· Source A shows that the operation was completed by a `short,
quick stroke of the knife'. This suggests that the doctors didn't
care about their patients being in pain.
· As anaesthetics hadn't been discovered yet the patients didn't
have any form of pain relief.…read more

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Anaesthetics
· 1799 Humphrey Davy discovered pain could be relieved by inhaling
nitrous oxide, laughing gas, but surgeons didn't use it
· 1842 Crawford Long found that ether was a useful anaesthetic but
he didn't publically announce his discovery
· 1845 Horace Wells saw people inhaling nitrous oxide and injuring
themselves with no pain but realised that nitrous oxide didn't work
on everyone
· 1846 John Warren provided anaesthetics through an operation
and managed to remove a tumour without the patient feeling pain
· 1846 Robert Liston used ether to remove a tooth and a leg
· 1847 James Simpson didn't like the use of ether as anaesthetic as
he thought it was dangerous so he tested chloroform with his
friends. They tried in on 50 patients and it seemed to work better
than ether.…read more

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John Snow
· He developed the chloroform inhaler…read more

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