GCSE History - Kennedy's New Frontier and Johnson's Great Society

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Kennedy's New Frontier Johnson's Great Society
1960 1963
Reasons: primarily the `New Frontier' was used as a Reasons: after K's assassination in Nov. 1963,
campaign slogan but developed into a programme of Johnson became President. In his first speech, he
reform to solve the issues surrounding Black talked about a Great Society, which declared a war
Americans and Civil Rights by changing attitudes and on poverty and `an immediate end to racial
providing equal opportunities. injustice'. Improved areas such as healthcare.
Civil Rights: Civil Rights:
Appointed 5 black federal judges, including Civil Rights Act, 1964 ­ banned
Thurgood Marshall (leading activist) discrimination in public places, federally
Oct. 1962 ­ sent 23,000 government troops assisted programmes and employment
to ensure one student could study at the Set up Equal Opportunity Commission
Mississippi University Voting Rights Act, 1965 ­ appointed agents
Feb. 1963 introduced the Civil Rights Bill to to ensure no discrimination in voting
Congress 1967 ­ mixed marriages were made legal
Economic: Economic:
Cut income taxes ­ more spending money for Cut taxes ­ help businesses grow to make
consumers more jobs for unemployed
Provided grants for companies to invest in Economic Opportunity Act, 1964 ­ reduce
hightech equipment to train workers and youth unemployment by retraining them.
improve their productivity Lowinterest loans provided for university
Limited prices and wages to ensure inflation Head Start Programme ­ spent $1.5bn to
did not spiral out of control help teachers provide extra help for poor
Social: Social:
Minimum wage was increased from $1 to Medical Care Act, 1965 ­ free healthcare for
$1.25 per hour over 65's and those receiving welfare
Social Security Act ­ gave financial help to the benefits
elderly and unemployed Model Cities Act, 1966 ­ improved inner
Manpower Development and Training Act ­ cities environments ­ clearing slums etc
retrained unemployed and gave a $900m loan Increased minimum wage from $1.25 to
to provide work $1.40 and hour
Limitations and Opposition: Limitations and Opposition:
K did not play a leading role in the Civil Rights Republicans accused J of wasting money,
movement he feared losing the support of undermining rugged individualism
Southern Congressmen Overspending on welfare programmes
Still unemployment ­ coal, iron, steel Did little to solve inner city problems ­ 1967,
Dependent on government spending riots in Watts, LA, 35 killed
Medicare thrown out by Congress
Only narrow victory in 1960 election

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Older members were suspicious of his Early enthusiasm faded ­ inflation reached
inexperience ­ Brains Trust 6% in 1968 when taxes went up to pay for
Suspicious of radical ideas ­ `socialist J's programmes
programme In its last two years, Congress cut back on
Southern Congressmen (DIXIECRATS) its funding for the programmes
disliked commitment to Civil Rights feared Vietnam War ­ costly and led to personal
equality would cost them the vote criticism of Johnson ­ "LBJ, how many kids
Opposition to increased spending that…read more

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