GCSE Geography Settlements, Urban Problems and Solutions

Settlements, geography, of urban problems and solutions for sustainability, paper 2

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Amelia Hill
Geography ELP
Settlements ­ Urban Problems and Solutions
Burgess Urban
land use model
Central business district
Leisure and recreation may include open land, e.g. parks or built facilities such as sports
Residential - the building of houses and flats.
Transport - road and rail networks, stations and airports.
Business and commerce - the building of offices, shops and banks.
Industry - factories, warehouses and small production centres.
The Inner City
The inner city is also known as the 'twilight zone'. It is typically found next to the CBD and
has mainly terraced houses in a grid like pattern. These were originally built to house factory
workers who worked in the inner city factories. Many of these factories have now closed
The suburbs
Suburban houses are usually larger than inner city terraces and most have a garden. Typically,
they are detached or semi-detached and the roads around them are arranged in cul de sacs
and wide avenues.

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The urban rural fringe
This is found at the edge of a town or city and is where town meets country. It is common
for this area to have a mixture of land uses such as some housing, golf courses, allotments,
business parks and airports.…read more

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The decay and deprivation of factories makes it an ideal place for crime and drug use,
this makes the surrounding place look unappealing which doesn't attract business or
people wanting houses in that area.…read more

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Finally crime tends to be high
Urban renewal:
This is the attempt to regenerate the inner city through industrial, housing and
community schemes.
The Government has used a variety of strategies including the creation of Urban
Development Corporations.
UDCs focused on inner city areas that had vast amounts of derelict land and buildings.
They had the power to acquire the land and convert buildings
London Docklands, Merseyside, Trafford Park, Teeside and Cardiff Bay are just some
of the areas that were targeted.…read more

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Docklands Sailing and Water sports Centre
£100 million spent on health, education, job training etc.
Many locals were unable to afford the high costs of the new expensive houses / flats
(still a lack of low-cost housing in the area)
Despite an increase in jobs with new businesses coming in, most required skills that the
old Dockers did not have.…read more

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As stores move out, this has
led to the decline of some CBD's. Shop units made vacant by large chain stores
moving out, may stay empty as smaller / independent stores cannot afford the high
land rents, whilst other chain stores prefer to locate in the out-of-town locations.
Population density, during the day the CBD is densely populated. This is due to the
high number of pedestrians and shop and office workers.…read more

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Anti-litter law have been put in place to hopefully attract people not to drop their litter
around otherwise they could get fined, they have encouraged this by improving provision of
bins and putting in place better road sweeping. By banning HGV's from CBDs they won't give
off many fumes as it will just be cars and vans, this will help the environment and global
warming.…read more

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Fitted CCTv to reduce crime
John Marley Centre created training opportunities for a thousand young students
I think this would have been effective because it was not just the economic side of things
that were changed but the social things like concerts and leisure activities so the social side
of problems would hopefully have been relieved.…read more

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There is very little jobs for people that live in shanty towns or Favelas as with the
already small amount available they do not have the education to get them a decent
job so the pay will be poor and they won't have the money to pay for their family
food so everyone will suffer
Education, very little people will have a decent education because people just can't
afford to send their children to the schools, this means that people don't get a
decent…read more

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Over time the conditions of shanty towns may improve. In many LEDCs, local communities,
charities and government departments are working together to improve conditions in the
squatter settlements. This makes the residents have a better quality of life.
Site and These give people the chance to rent or buy a piece of land. The land is
service connected to the city by transport links and has access to essential services
schemes (e.g. water). People build their own homes using money from a
low-interest loan.…read more


Mr A Gibson

Brilliant notes. Great format so you know how to read through them to find what you want in the case studies. Diagrams and bulleted text - accessible and easy to work from.

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