GCSE Geography Key words for final exam

these are definitions of geography key words that will be handy to use and know for the final exam for geography. 

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  • Created on: 18-04-11 15:41
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Population The total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or any district or area.
Migration properly, any movement of a living organism across space, or between locations
Over Population when there are more than enough people to exploit all the resources of an area such that the
marginal return to each person is lower than that of the optimal population.
Under Population when the population is not sufficient to make full use of all the resources available and so
standards of living are not as high as they could be.
Demographic transition model a theory of population change over time. Seeks to explain population increases and decreases
through variations in the birth rate and death rate
Infant Mortality the number of children dying under a year of age divided by the number of live births that year
Life Expectancy average number of years that individuals are expected to live depending on where and when
they are born and spend their lives.
Birth Rate Number of births per thousand per year.
Death Rate Number of deaths per thousand people per year.
Emigration Outward movement of people from a country
Immigration inward movement of people to a country.
Management How the effects of something are managed e.g. trying to lower impacts.
LEDC Less economically developed country
MEDC More economically developed country
Ageing Population Population with large proportion older, less being born than before
Economic Stuff to do with industry, business, government and money
Social Stuff to do will people involved
Environmental Stuff to do with environment, plants, animals and landscapes
Push Factors a negative quality of a place which pushes people to migrate away from it.
Pull Factors an attractive quality of a place which pulls migrants to it.
Condensation -the formation of water droplets or ice crystals from water vapour when it is cooled to the dew
Transpiration the loss of water from plants through the stomata in the leaves.
Evapotranspiration total moisture lost through evaporation and transpiration.
Evaporation the transformation of water liquid to water gas (or vapour) by energy from heat or air
Infiltration movement of water from the surface into the soil.
Surface run off is the water flow that occurs when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain
Flood plain the part of the valley floor occasionally flooded by the river. Over time sediment or alluvium
builds the elevation of the plain.
Levee the naturally raised bank of a river. When flooding occurs, the water immediately begins to
lose energy and deposits the larger load.
Meander an exaggerated, looping, bend in a river
Watershed the highland separating one river basin from another.
Source the start point of a stream or river.
Mouth where a river meets a body of water.
Tributary one river joining another. Usually the smaller of the two is labelled the tributary, and the larger
is the main channel
Confluence where two river channels join
River Basin The land area drained by a river and its tributaries.
Interfluve The region of higher land between two rivers that are in the same drainage system
Oxbow lake a crescent-shaped lake formed when the main bend of a meander is cut off and becomes
isolated from the main river channel.
Hydraulic Action due to the action of water. In geography, a process of erosion whereby flowing water moves
unconsolidated material due to forces of drag.
Corrosion a generic term for chemical weathering.
Abrasion The process of wearing away a surface by friction. A rock undergoes abrasion when particles
of sand or small pieces of rock are carried across its surface by a glacier, stream, or the wind.
Attrition a process of erosion where the collisions between parts of the load lead to break down of rock.
Chemical Weathering involves the alteration of the chemical and mineralogical composition of the weathered
material e.g. freeze thaw or acid rain
Biological Weathering the process of change in the state of soil or rock through actions of plants and animals such
as burrowing or root growth undertaken by living organisms
Traction material rolled along the bed of the river.
Saltation -the transport of load by bouncing along the bed of a river channel.
Solution the taking of minerals into water and removing them through flow.
Volcano A mountain or hill, typically conical, having a crater or vent through which lava, rock
fragments, hot vapor, and gas are or have been erupted from the earth's crust.
Fault a break in the continuity of rock strata. May be due to tension, compression, and/or horizontal
Magma the naturally raised bank of a river. When flooding occurs, the water immediately begins to
lose energy and deposits the larger load.

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Destructive Plate a plate boundary where the relative movement of the crustal plates is towards each other and
where one is subducted beneath the other thus being destroyed as it returns to the mantle. The
collision may be between oceanic plates or between an oceanic plate and a continental plate.
The denser of the two will subduct. This will never be continental crust as it is always the less
dense.…read more


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