GCSE Geography - Globalisation Revision Notes

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notes taken from CGP GCSE Geography AQA A Specification

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Globalisation
Globalisation is the process of all the world's economies becoming integrated.
It happened because of national trade, investment and improvements in
communications
Countries have become interdependent as a result of globalisation
Improvements in communications
ICT Transport
Email, internet, mobile phones, phone More airports, high speed trains, larger
lines that carry more information and ships makes it quicker and easier to
faster communicate face to fact
Quicker and easier for businesses all Easier to distribute their products all
over the word to communicate over the world faster
Call centres abroad and localised industrial regions
Call centres abroad Localised industrial regions
Handle telephone enquires Industries develop around a specific region
Easy to phone faraway countries because of that is useful to them, but still have global
improvements in ICT connections
Based abroad because labour is cheaper,
which reduces running costs
Example: 2004 Aviva moved 950 call centre Example: motor sport companies have offices
jobs from the UK to India and Sri Lanka ­ in Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire e.g.
costs less there Renault Formula 1 team. People like drivers
and engineers can easily fly into the area. Use
the internet to easily send and receive
information and data about their cars to
people around the world
TNCs (Transnational Corporations)
TNCs increase globalisation
TNCs are companies that produce products, sell products, or are located in more
than one country
Advantages Disadvantages

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Creates jobs Employees in poorer countries may be paid
Employees in poorer countries get a more lower than employees in richer countries
reliable income Employees in poorer countries may have to
Send money to improve local infrastructure work longer hours in poor conditions
New technology and skills are bought to Most TNCs come from richer countries so
poorer countries profits go back there
Jobs created in poorer countries aren't secure
Changing manufacturing locations
NICs ­ newly industrialising countries e.g.…read more

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Energy Demand
The global demand for energy is increasing
Reasons:
Increased wealth in poorer countries
Technological advances
Increase in world population
Impacts of energy production
Social Environmental Economic
More power plants have to Burning fossil fuels Countries with lots of
be built (people may have releases CO2 resources will become
to move out of the area) Global warming causes richer
Waste from nuclear power sea levels to rise Countries with fewer
plants is radioactive Acid Rain resources will need to
(causes Deforestation destroys buy from…read more

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Farmers switching Transporting food Using chemicals helps Lots of water is
from subsistence produced CO2. produce a lot of food. needed to produce
farming to Higher food miles However, they can be food
commercial farming. more C02 produced expensive (borrowing Hostilities between
They can make more Amount of CO2 money) countries that use the
money due to high produced during Farmers generate a same water source
demand of food. growing and steady income by E.G.…read more

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