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Four processes of erosion

Hydraulic action ­ Force of waves which cause the cliffs to crack, break apart and erode
Abrasion ­ Powerful waves pick up stones and throws them against the base of the cliff
which attacks the cliff over time
Attrition ­ Stones smash into each other…

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Rock supporting arch wears way forming a STACK
Stack worn away to give a STUMP which can be covered by high tides

Longshore Drift

Material is transported along coasts
Waves follow the direction of the prevailing wind
Hit coast as an oblique angle
Swash carries material up the beach in…

Page 3

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Sea Wall Reflects waves Prevents erosion Expensive. Strong
barrier to flooding Backwash = Erosion
Rip Rap Boulders Absorb wave energy Moved around by
strong winds
Groynes Right angle, trap Wider beaches = Starve beach as
materials from LSD slower waves narrow which means
poor protection =
Rip Rap Armour…


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