GCSE Drought revision notes for OCR

By no means is this a complete case study, I purely created this for revision!!!

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  • Created on: 22-03-13 12:52
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Jack Walker
Drought revision notes
Causes ­ Natural
High air pressure Air sinks No condensation No clouds and
Land cool down quickly Air above it cools down quickly Air sinks
High air pressure
Equatorial low pressure belt fails to move north Rains fail for the
year Ethiopian drought
Causes ­ Human
Deforestation No transpiration as there are no trees for
transpiration to occur from More surface run-off and less
transpiration which means less rain
Overgrazing exposes soils to wind and rain erosion Saturated soils
mean more surface run-off
Wars Access to water and valuable aid supplies prevented.
Effects ­ Primary
Water shortages
Lakes and rivers dry up
Soils dry up
Effects - Secondary
Famine and starvation due to food shortages
Diseases become rife as drinking unsuitable water may become a last
Wildfires spread due to dried out trees and vegetation
Economic losses (mainly through farming) due to poor soils
Ethiopian Drought, Africa, 1984
Causes ­ Natural
Failure of the 'short rains' in February and the 'long rains' in June
Cyclical droughts more frequent Little time in between each
drought to give the country time to recover.
Causes ­ Human
Overpopulation ­ already limited resources stretched further
Ethiopia was failing to cope with the on-going civil war (Tigre and
Eritrea) ­ Crippled the economy and contributed to the government's
lack of ability to handle the coming crisis
Only 8% of the allocated 22% from the governmental budget was

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Jack Walker
used to provide technical assistance, seeds and other important
resources for the 7 million farmers who grew practically all of the
country's food.
Effects (All secondary)
Almost 8 million people became famine victims during the drought
Roughly 1 million people died
Many people died from diarrhoea as they did not have the water to
replenish themselves
Around 1.…read more

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Jack Walker
Built on the river bed during the dry season
Retain water during the wet season
Digging a small hole in the dam allows collection of the water
Crop rotation
Allows a variety of nutrients to be used and replaced so the soil
doesn't become infertile
Drought Resistant Crops
Maize is a staple crop ­ drought resistant types of this crop are being
Planting Trees
Roots of the tree bind the soil together and keep water in the soil
Leaves act as fertilisers…read more


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