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EMPIRICAL FORMULAE
This is the symbol equation for an compound eg
H(2)0
To work it out, you must do the following.....
... List all the elements
... Write the masses used in the experiment
... Divide the mass by the Relative Atomic Mass/ Ar/
top number
... Turn the numbers into ratios either by dividing
or multiplying
... Get the ratio in the simplest form possible…read more

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CALCULATING MASSES IN
REACTIONS
Write out the balanced equation
Work out the total RAM/ Mr of all the elements
in the compound and say that one gives another
Divide all of the equation by the number on the
LHS to get 1 on the LHS and usually a decimal on
the RHS.
Then multiply by the given mass in the question
NB Only give answers to 3 significant figures…read more

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ATOM ECONOMY
Chemists use them to find out if a reaction is
efficient enough to be carried out
It is solved by......
... Atom Economy= [total RAM of all the elements in
the useful compound / (divided by) the total RAM
of all the elements acting as reactants] x100
High atom economy is better for profits and for
the environment…read more

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PERCENTAGE YIELD
Percentage Yield= Actual Yield (g)
Theoretical Yield (g)
The actual yield is what you get in practice and
the theoretical yield is what you predict you will
get before the experiment
Yields are always less than 100% because
... You always lose a bit of liquid when transferring
it
... Impurities
... Some particles may be lost during filtration
... Some reactions are reversible…read more

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TITRATION CALCULATION
Remember this equation:
... C1V1 = C2V2
n1 n2
... Where C= Concentration (mols dm{-3}), V=
Volume and n= number of moles
... From this equation you can work out an of these
values as long as you have one complete side and
tow bits of data on the other…read more

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