GCSE Chemistry C2 AQA Higher - Ionic (Electrovalent), Covalent & Metallic Bonding

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  • Created on: 30-11-11 14:59
Preview of GCSE Chemistry C2 AQA Higher - Ionic (Electrovalent), Covalent & Metallic Bonding

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There are three types of bonds between elements=
-Covalent bonding
-Ionic (Electrovalent) bonding
-Metallic bonding
Covalent bonding
Covalent bonding usually occurs between two non metals, when they bond and they have to share an
two electrons. They require great energy and are very hard to break. The electrons involved are found
on the outer shells of the atoms. The strong bonds between atoms that are joined by covalent bonds are
the result of electrostatic attraction between the positive nuclei of the atoms and the pairs of negative
electrons that are shared between them.
For example each carbon dioxide molecule has a carbon atom joined by four covalent bonds to two
oxygen atoms, which have two covalent bonds each.
Ionic (Electrovalent) Bonding
Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons. They have the same
electronic structures as noble gases. Metal atoms form positive ions, while non-metal atoms form
negative ions. The strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions are called
ionic bonds. Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling point.
Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons. This loss or gain leaves
a complete highest energy level, so the electronic structure of an ion is the same as that of a noble gas -
such as a helium, neon or argon. Metal atoms and non-metal atoms go in opposite directions when they
ionise:
Metal atoms lose the electron, or electrons, in their highest energy level and become positively charged
ions.
Non-metal atoms gain an electron, or electrons, from another atom to become negatively charged ions.
Here is an easy way to tell the charge of the atom=
Group 1 = +1 charge
Group 2 = +2 charge
Group 3 = +3 charge
Group 4 = Forms covalent bonds
Group 5 = -3 charge
Group 6 = -2 charge

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Group 7 = -1 charge
Group 0 = Does not react
Example diagrams for metal ions -
Examples for non-metal ions -
When metals react with non-metals, electrons are transferred from the metal atoms to the non-metal
atoms, forming ions. The resulting compound is called an ionic compound.…read more

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In each of these reactions, the metal atoms give electrons to the non-metal atoms. The metal atoms
become positive ions and the non-metal atoms become negative ions.
There is a strong electrostatic force of attraction between these oppositely charged ions, called an ionic
bond. The animation shows ionic bonds being formed in sodium chloride, magnesium oxide and calcium
chloride.
Examples of Ionic bonds -
Metallic Bonding
Metals form giant structures in which electrons in the outer shells of the metal atoms are free to move.…read more

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