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There are three types of bonds between elements=

-Covalent bonding
-Ionic (Electrovalent) bonding
-Metallic bonding

Covalent bonding

Covalent bonding usually occurs between two non metals, when they bond and they have to share an
two electrons. They require great energy and are very hard to break. The electrons involved are…

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Group 7 = -1 charge
Group 0 = Does not react

Example diagrams for metal ions -




Examples for non-metal ions -




When metals react with non-metals, electrons are transferred from the metal atoms to the non-metal
atoms, forming ions. The resulting compound is called an ionic compound.

Consider reactions…

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sodium + chlorine sodium chloride

magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide

calcium + chlorine calcium chloride

In each of these reactions, the metal atoms give electrons to the non-metal atoms. The metal atoms
become positive ions and the non-metal atoms become negative ions.

There is a strong electrostatic force of attraction…

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