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Anhydrous: Substance that doesn't contain water
Atom economy: Efficiency of a chemical reaction in terms of all atoms involved
Covalent bonding: Bonds formed when atoms join together by sharing electrons
Closed system: None of the reactants or products can escape
Equilibrium: Point at which reversible reaction takes place and reach a certain balance
and stay there
Giant covalent structures- Giant structures held together by many covalent bonds
which give high melting points and hardness
Ion- A charged atom (positive & negative)
Ionic bonding- Chemical bond formed when one atom gives up one or more electrons
Isotope- Atoms of same element, which have different numbers of neutrons
Intermolecular forces- Force of attraction between molecules (WEAK)
Intramolecular forces- Force that holds together the atoms making up a molecule or
compound (STRONG)
Percentage yield- % of product formed in chemical reaction, with maximum possible
amount of product formed
Products- Equation after arrow, final product made from reactants
Reversible reaction- Reaction in which products react together to produce original
Reactants- Equation on left side, what you start with
Yield- Amount of product formed in a chemical reaction…read more

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Protons = Positively charged particles found in nucleus
· Electrons = Negatively charges particles orbiting nucleus
· Neutrons = NO charge (neutral) particles found in nucleus
(protons + neutrons)
Proton +1 1
Atomic Number Neutron 0 1
Electron -1 Very small
Neutrons= Atomic Mass - Atomic Number
Number of protons = number of electrons
E.g. Bromine (Br) --- Protons = 35, so electrons = 35 as well…read more

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An atom of the same element (protons with different numbers of neutrons
1. Hydrogen (H¹)- has one proton, one electron,
no neutron
2. Deuterium (H²)- has one proton, one electron,
one neutron
3. Tritium (H)- has one proton, one electron, two
16 18
Are different because they are an isotope. Same
O O number of protons, but different number
8 8
Oxygen- 16 Oxygen- 18 neutrons.
·An unstable isotope is radioactive
Isotope No. Of No. Of electrons No. Of neutrons
Uranium-235 = U (235-92) 92 92 143
Uranium-237 = U (237-92) 92 92 145…read more

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Periodic table consist of elements.
·Elements are put into groups according to properties, number of outer electrons and
reactivity series.
·There are 8 groups (down-vertically) and 7 periods (across-horizontally)
·Group 1 = Alkali metals
·Group 7 = Halogens
·Group 0 or 8 = Noble gases…read more

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Relative ATOMIC Mass- (A): Relative FORMULA Mass- (M):
24+ (35.5 x 2) = 95
Helium has A = 4 and Carbon has A = 12 40 + 12 + (16 x 3) = 100
·Relative formula mass- mass of Ca(OH)
elements in a compound/ molecule
40 + (16 + 1) 2 = 74
added together
·Mole is a very large number of Mole = grams (g)
·One mole of a compound is the
relative formula mass in grams. Number = mass
·E.g. One mole of calcium hydroxide is of moles Mass of 1 mole
74 grams.
·112g of sulphur is 3.5 moles…read more

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wow this really helped a lot, thanks :D

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