GCSE Biology - Organisms & Cells

Detailed information on cells in both plants and animals..

I've also given a brief introduction on organisms..

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Organisms & Their Cells
· Simple organisms are made from single cells..
· Multicellular organisms like plants and animals, including you and me, are made
up of millions of cells!
Our cells have many different functions, but some features are basically the
same in all cells such as the nucleus, cytoplasm & cell membrane..
· There are 8 processes which are common to most living things.. They:
require nutrition they either make their own food, or eat other organisms
excrete get rid of toxic waste products
move by action of muscles in animals, and slow growth movements in
grow/develop increase in size & mass, using materials obtained from food
respire get energy from food
respond to stimuli are sensitive to changes in their surroundings
reproduce produce offspring
control their internal conditions (e.g. homeostasis, the regulation of body
Cell Structure;;
As I stated before, most cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a cell membrane. Some
cells are an exception, such as red blood cells, which don't have a nucleus. Below is a
very basic comparison between a plant & animal cell:
It may be worth researching each cell in more detail, to get higher marks..
· The cytoplasm is the living material which makes up a cell
It's jelly-like and its made of many different structures (organelles)
· The largest organelle is the nucleus
It controls the activities of the cell

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It contains chromosomes which carry genetic material (genes)
The genes control which proteins the cell can make
· Enzymes are proteins which control chemical reactions that occur in the
· ALL cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. This is the "boundary" between
the cytoplasm and the outside, although it isn't a complete barrier.
It allows some chemicals to pass into the cell, and some to pass out.…read more


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