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B2 Notes
Light microscopes: Magnify 100s of times
Electron Microscopes: Magnify 100,000s of times

Both Have:
-Nucleus: Contains genetic material and controls cell activity
-Cytoplasm: Contains enzymes that control chemical reactions
-Cell Membrane: Controls what substances go in or out of cell
-Mitochondria: Where respiration occurs to release energy…

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Specialised Cells:
-The cell structure of a specialised cell is adapted to suit its particular function
-They look different from typical animal/plant cells
-Some cells become so specialised they only have one job/function

Specialised Cell Adapted for/to... Adaptions
Sperm and Egg Cells Reproduction Egg cells
-When sperm fuses with egg,…

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Cell Organisation

Multicellular Organisms:
-Specialised cells are formed through a process known as Differentiation.
-Differentiation occurs during the development of Multicellular Organism.
-Specialised cells form Tissues, which form Organs, which Organ Systems.
-In Large multicellular organisms these organ systems are used to transport and exchange materials.

Tissues: Group of similar…

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What happens during Photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis produces glucose using sunlight and releases oxygen as by product.

1. Sunlight provides energy for process
2. Chlorophyll absorbs light energy
3. Water reaches cell via xylem
4. Carbon dioxide diffuses into the leaf
5. Photosynthesis occurs
6. Oxygen is given off as by product…

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The Rate of Photosynthesis

Affected by:
-Intensity of light
-Volume of Carbon dioxide

3 Important Graphs for Rate of Photosynthesis

Not enough LIGHT:
-Slows down photosynthesis as light provides energy for photosynthesis
-As the light increases so will the rate of photosynthesis but only to a certain point…

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Distribution of Organisms
Affected By
-Availability of water
-Availability of carbon dioxide and oxygen
-Availability of nutrients
-Amount of light

Recording distribution of organisms:

-Used to study distribution of small organisms
-Are placed randomly
- look at the results from several quadrats in an area to reduce the…

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pH Level
Enzymes work best at their optimum pH. pH interferes with bonds the bonds holding the
bonds together

Digestive Enzyme- Break Made in Job
big molecules into
smaller one

Amylase Pancreas -Breaks starch into sugars
Protease Pancreas -Converts proteins into amino acids

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Anaerobic Respiration
-Without oxygen
-Less efficient than aerobic
-Glucose Energy + Lactic Acid (what causes stitches etc)

Oxygen Debt- When lungs, heart and blood couldn't keep up with oxygen demand
-Not enough oxygen results in panting, panting leads to more oxygen entering the body,
therefore oxidising the lactic acid, releasing…

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- Chromosomes consist of long strands of DNA
-DNA contain bases (different combinations of GC and AT)
-The bases make up the genetic code for a particular gene
-A gene is a unit of inheritance

Cell Division

Mitosis- When a cell reproduces itself by splitting to two form two…

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both parents
-Occurs in two divisions

First Division
1. Before cell division , cell duplicates DNA
2.Chromosomes pairs line up in cell centre
3.Pairs pulled apart forming 2 new cells, both with a mixture of male and female chromosomes
Second Division
4.New cell chromosomes line up again and are pulled…


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