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GCSE Chemistry
`Unit 1a' written by Applequestria

Table of Contents

Table of Contents..................................................................................................................................... 1
Atoms ...................................................................................................................................................... 2
The periodic table .................................................................................................................................... 3
Chemical reactions................................................................................................................................... 3
Calcium carbonate ................................................................................................................................... 4
Calcium carbonate (continued) ................................................................................................................ 5
Extracting metals ..................................................................................................................................... 6
Extracting metals (continued) .................................................................................................................. 7
Properties and uses of metals .................................................................................................................. 8…

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Atoms
All substances are made of atoms. A substance that is made of only one sort of atom is called an
element. There are about one hundred different known elements. Elements are shown in the periodic
table. The groups contain elements with similar properties. Atoms of each element are represented…

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The periodic table
Elements in the same group in the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their highest
energy level (outer electrons) and this gives them similar chemical properties.
For example, the alkali metals of group one all have one electron in their highest energy
levels. This…

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Calcium carbonate
Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be
used as building material. For example, old buildings such as cathedrals are often made from
limestone blocks.
Limestone is mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium carbonate thermally decomposes on heating to…

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Calcium carbonate (continued)
There are issues with quarrying limestone:
Quarrying damages the landscape.
Quarrying produces noise.
Quarrying produces dust.
Destroys habitat.
Transporting produces noise.
Transporting produces pollution.
Waste produce unsightly tips.

There are issues with using limestone:
Cement factories use a lot of energy to produce cement and quicklime. The…

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Extracting metals
Ores contain enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal (and is usually a metal oxide).
Ores are mined and may be concentrated before the metal is extracted and purified. The economics
of extraction may change over time:
If market price rises, it might be worth…

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Extracting metals (continued)
Metals less reactive than carbon are extracted by reduction:
Copper is extracted by reduction. This is done by reduction of copper(II) oxide ore in a
furnace and this is called smelting. Disadvantage is that impure copper is produced.
Copper is purified by electrolysis. This is done by…

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Properties and uses of metals
The elements in the central block of the periodic table are known as transition metals. Like other
metals they are good conductors of heat and electricity and can be bent or hammered into shape.
They are useful as structural materials and for making things that…

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Crude oil
Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. A mixture consists of two or more
elements or compounds not chemically combined together. All elements or compounds in a mixture
keep their properties. All elements or compounds in a mixture can be separated using physical…

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Hydrocarbon fuels
Crude oil fractions are used to generate electricity because:
Many devices use crude oil fractions.
They are easy to use.
They are cheap to use.
They are readily available.
New technology is being discovered.
New oil reserves are being discovered.

Crude oil fractions should not be used to…

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