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STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS/ALKALIS
· Acids in aqueous solutions produce H+ ions.
· Alkalis in aqueous solutions produce OH-
ions.
· Because acids act as a source of protons, they
are referred to as proton donors.
· Because hydroxide ions from an alkali
combine readily with protons (H+ ions), they
are referred to as proton acceptors.
· A strong acid or base is 100% ionised in water
e.g.: hydrochloric, sulphuric and nitric acid.
Sodium hydroxide is a strong alkali.
· A weak acid or base is only partly ionised in
water e.g.: carbonic, ethanoic and citric acid.
An example of a weak alkali is ammonia…read more

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TITRATIONS
· Titration is used to measure accurately how
much alkali is needed to react completely
with a known acid (or vice versa).
· The point at which an acid-base reaction is
complete is called the end point of the
reaction.
· A suitable indicator should be chosen to
show the end point of an acid-base reaction.
Strong acid+ strong alkali ­ any indicator is
suitable
Weak acid + strong alkali ­ use phenolphthalein
Strong acid + weak alkali ­ use methyl orange…read more

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TITRATION CALCULATIONS
· To calculate the concentration of a solution
Calculate the mass (in grams) of solute in 1 cm3
of solution,
Calculate the mass (in grams) of solute in
1000cm3 of solution.
Convert the mass (in grams) to moles.
· To calculate the mass of a solute in a certain
volume of solution
Calculate the mass (in grams) of the solute there
is in 1 dm3 of solution
Calculate the mass (in grams) of solute in 1 cm3
of solution
Calculate the mass (in grams) of solute there is
in the given volume of the solution.…read more

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