GCSE AQA Biology Additional 2(i) Life Processes REVISION NOTES

These detailed notes provide everything you need to know for additional biology 2(i) including:

  • animal and plant cells
  • specialised cells
  • diffusion
  • osmosis
  • photosynthesis
  • the rate of photosynthesis
  • how plants use glucose
  • minerals for healthy growth
  • pyramids of number and biomass
  • energy transfer and decay
  • managing food production
  • the carbon cycle

They are explained clearly though designed for revision not initial learning.

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  • Created by: LissT
  • Created on: 25-04-10 18:57

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Page 1

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Life and Cells
Animal & Plant cells

Animal Cells
Most animal cells have the following
structures:



Structure Function

1. Nucleus · Controls all the activities of the cell
· Contains genetic material for making new cells and
organisms
2. Cytoplasm · A liguid gel in which most of the chemical…

Page 2

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Enzymes control the chemical reactions inside cells
· Enzymes are found throughout the structure of a cell but particularly in the
cytoplasm and mitochondria (and chloroplasts in plants)
· Enzymes are proteins and they act as biological catalysts

Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems

· Cells have structures that are specialised…

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Specialised Cells
Fat Cells
Fat cells are storage cells­ if you eat more food than you need, your body makes
fat and stores it in these cells
Adaptations
1. Very little normal cytoplasm­ leaves room
for large amounts of fat
2. Very few mitochondria as it uses very little
energy…

Page 4

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Diffusion
· Diffusion is the passive movement of particles from places of high
concentration to places of low concentration
· Diffusion occurs in liquids and gases, because the particles are free to move
about randomly




· Cell membranes hold the cell together, but let materials pass in and out of…

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Osmosis
Osmosis is a special case of diffusion
Osmosis is the movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from
a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration

· A partially permeable membrane is one with very small holes in it, so only
tiny molecules,…

Page 6

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Photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants produce their "food". The "food" is
glucose. It occurs in al the leaves of green plants.
Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts, which are found in all the green parts
of the plant. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll…

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The Effect of Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide is one of the raw materials needed for photosynthesis, so as the
amount of carbon dioxide in the air increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis.
But as with light intensity, it only increases up to a certain point, where either light
intensity…

Page 8

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How plants use glucose
The glucose produced by photosynthesis is used in the following ways:

1. For Respiration
Some of the glucose produced is used for respiration. This releases energy
which allows them to convert the rest of the glucose into other useful
substances

2. Making Fruits
Glucose (and another…

Page 9

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Minerals for Healthy Growth
Plants also need mineral salts in order to grow healthily. There are two important
minerals to learn.

Nitrates
Why are nitrates needed?
Nitrates are needed from the soil in order to make amino acids, which are then
used to make proteins. Proteins act as enzymes, and…

Page 10

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Pyramids of number and biomass
Both of these pyramids show food chains at their various stages. Pyramids of
number show the number of organisms at each stage. The problem with this is
that sometimes, for example, there are many organisms feeding on one tree. This
would make the pyramid look…

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