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External caused injuries can be
caused by factors other than the
2.2 Injury performer.
Impact with someone or
Internally caused injuries where something (landing hard,
These cause bruises,
Foul play ­ involves other
players, usually opponents.
the performer is solely responsible sprains, fractures,
dislocations or concussion.
Equipment/clothing ­ Accidents- whatever
Overuse injuries ­ Sudden Injuries ­ could be damaged, faulty or precautions take place
either by training when your taking badly fitting or there will always be
inappropriate. accidents.
or performing to part in a activity
much. This can and rapidly PRECAUTIONS
cause stress stretch, twist or A risk assessment should be carried out and the
fractures, muscle turn causing findings followed.
or tendon injuries damage. Warm-ups should always be carried out before
All rules or codes of conduct should be clear,
followed and enforced…read more

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2.3 First aid and Emergency treatments
Sprains - when ligaments are overstretched or torn Dislocation - when the bones of a joint are wrenched
around a joint, e.g. twisted or sprained ankle. apart.
Strains - when a muscle or tendon is overstretched Tennis and golf elbow - damage to tendons caused by
or torn, e.g. pulled muscle. overuse.
Bruises - caused when blood vessels burst under the Cartilage - which tears in the knee and can 'lock' the
skin following impact.
Concussion - Caused by impact to the head, often
FRACTURES: knocking the person unconscious
Closed - when the bone breaks but stays inside the Dehydration - caused by heat and a lack of water.
skin. Leads to headache, light headedness, pale clammy skin
Open - when the bone breaks and comes out and muscle cramps.
through the skin.
Hypothermia - caused by excessive cold. The internal
body temperature drops leading to shivering, cold pale
skin, shallow breathing, confusion and tiredness.…read more

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2.4 The respiratory system : aerobic
When the body continues an activity for a long time,
the energy produced using oxygen.
For it to work efficiently, oxygen must be constant.
1. When we breathe, the intercostal muscles raise
the ribs up and push out the sternum
2. This reduces the pressure inside the chest cavity
and causes air to be sucked into the lungs
3. The air is full of nitrogen, oxygen and low CO2
4. When we breathe out, the air is full of nitrogen,
CO2 and low oxygen.…read more

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2.5 The respiratory system : anaerobic
This occurs when there is insufficient amount of oxygen
Only used for short bursts
When we respire anaerobically, we use our glycogen stores in our muscles for energy. This is a
debt that we owe to the body. If not lactic acid builds up and aches the muscles. That's we do
a warm down and disperse the lactic acid.
We can do this by:
Expiration of breath
Excretion via urine and faeces.…read more

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2.6 The Circulatory System
The blood carries the oxygen, water
and nutrients throughout the body and
transports and removes waste
Protection is provided when antibodies
that fight infection are carried in the
blood. Blood can clot to seal cuts and
Body temperature is regulated as the
blood carries it to lungs and skin where
it is released.
The Heart is a muscle which contracts and
relaxes (heartbeat). The rate will increase
when more oxygen is needed to supply the
body.…read more

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