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· What is a family?
A group of people who are related by kinship ties: relation of blood, marriage or adoption.
· What is a household?
One person or a group of people who share living arrangements.
· Forms of family and marriage
Monogamy The state of having only one sexual partner at any one time.…read more

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Murdock ­ 4 functions
· The family teaches that sexual relations should
only take place in a socially approved context.
· Family gives a way to regulate sexual
1 Sexual (sexual regulation)
relationships also. If families didn't exist, you
wouldn't know who your family was, and may
accidentally have sex with them.
Reproduction · The family gives the stability for reproduction
2 and rearing of children.
· Primary socialisation of children, they learn the
3 Socialisation values of society. This is called the value
consensus.…read more

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Marxist Feminism
o Believe that the family meets the needs of capitalism by socializing children into ruling class norms
and values leading to a submissive and obedient workforce, with false consciousness and stability
for capitalism.
o The male's instrumental role maintains the family. He pays for the reproduction of labour power and
acts as a strong control on workers behaviour in the work place, thereby helping to maintain the
stability of an unequal, exploitative capitalist society.…read more

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Changes in the family since industrialisation
1. Decline in marriage and growth in cohabitation
2. Remarriage resulting in reconstituted families
3. More births outside marriage
4. Growth of the lone parent family
5. Rising divorce rates
6. Decline in family size
7. More child centred families
8. More symmetrical families
9. Weakening of extended kinship links
10. Growth in singlehood
· Loss of functions
Parsons said there is structural differentiation.…read more

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There is a need in industrial societies for 1. Laslett said that the typical family before
geographical mobility. Modern industrial society has a industrialisation was never the extended family. He
specialized division of labour ­ a wide range of said only 10% of households contained kin beyond
different occupations with different incomes and the nuclear family. He says it was the nuclear
lifestyles. family that allowed industrial society to emerge.
2. A higher rate of social mobility means that people can 2.…read more

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There is still the case of the widespread male violence in relationships (wife-
· The effect of housework and childcare on women's careers.
o Surveys show that women are limited in the jobs they do because of
childcare, e.g. they have to be at home and take children to and from school.
o Women receive less pay, job security and promotion.
o 40% of women in paid employment only work part time.…read more

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Single mothers with sons have said to lead to more juvenile delinquency because
boys don't have role models.
o Cohabitation
· The reasons for an increase:
· The changing roles of women. Because they are more economically independent, it
has given them more freedom to choose their relationships.
· Growing secularisation
· Changing social attitudes and reduced social stigma.
· Greater availability of contraception.
· Higher expectations of marriage.
o Singlehood
· 1 in 3 houses contain only one person.…read more

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Historical changes in childhood show us that in
medieval times, children were seen as `little adults' and
went from infancy to working roles in the community.
They didn't live mixed lives to adults. E.g. in the 19th
century, many children worked in factories under age
Differences between children in the same society
3 INDUSTRIAL/MODERN show us that poorer children have different
experience of childhood than well off children.…read more

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Social Policy
Labour and Conservative Parties (Manifesto 1997) · See government policy as important.
· Believe that families are at the core of society.
They should teach right from wrong and be the
first defence against anti-social behaviour.
· They say marriage provides strong foundations
for stable relationships.
The New Right · Endorses the cereal packet view of the
traditional family.
· See the family being under threat from
increasing divorce laws and rising lone parent
families.…read more


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