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Culture ­ The culture of a society is the way of life of its members, the collection of ideas and habits which
they share and transmit from generation to generation.
Norms ­ Social expectations or rules about how people should or should not behave. Social norms are
accepted ways of thinking and behaving, but may not be formally written down. Example, Let your hair
down at end of term party is acceptable, do same in classroom would be frowned upon.…read more

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Multiculturalism ­ Different subcultures (often ethnic), living side by side in society. UK is multicultural
with around 9% of the population coming from ethnic backgrounds.
Process of Socialisation
Nature/Nurture ­ Nature is associated with those who would argue that behaviour is determined by
innate or inherited factors. Nurture side argue that all behaviour is determined by experience ­ Baby's
mind at birth is a blank slate, on which experience writes.…read more

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Age Related Issues: Individuals position within the family can influence how others see them/how they
see themselves. People consider their parents to be a part of a different generation to themselves
o Ethnicity: Surnames and first names can portray a sense of ethnic identity. Language spoken, food and
clothing selected for children, are also important influences. (Francis and Archer ­ Make considerable
sacrifices to ensure success for children.)
· Peer Groups ­ One of the most important, especially in teenage years.…read more

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Age Related Issues: From first starting school, age is a determining factor. Month child is born determines
year group, and position in that year group as old/young. This remains with child until they leave.
Identification with age boundaries at such a young age is likely to have a lasting impression on how people
understand the ageing process.
o Ethnicity: In school, individual's ethnic identity is shaped by the formal and informal curriculum.…read more

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Age Related Issues: Media represent different age categories in stereotypical ways. Youths over-
represented as deviant and troublesome. Middle aged ­ time of crisis. Old age ­ Time of dependency and
loneliness. These representations are important, because they influence popular culture so heavily.
o Ethnicity: In locations where few minority ethnic groups live/visit, people often rely on media
representations for their understandings of different ethnic groups.…read more

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Complicit Masculinity ­ Men who believe men and women should share roles.
o Subordinate Masculinity ­ Homosexual men (acceptance is growing).
o Marginalised Masculinity ­ Men who can see there is a decline in manual work (as technology increases)
and women are taking more of the jobs that are being created. CRISIS OF MASCULINITY ­ MAC AN GHAILL!
In 1989, Britain distinguished masculinity from masculism.…read more

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Men learn to want to possess women who embody beauty. Reduces women to
objects and motivates men to possess them. Myth says the key to a woman's happiness lies in beauty.
- Ferguson '85 offered new possibilities of freedom and independence but included a new set of pressures.
E.g. Girl Power- promotion of positive gender identity. But, it was constructed by male record producers.
Masculinisation of femininity.
· Peer Groups: At school age, kids forge ties with others of the same age.…read more

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While typically, men want special
attention to any housework, taking for granted contributions of women.
- Horizontal Segregation ­ extent to which women and men do different jobs.
- Vertical Segregation ­ Refers to extent to which men have higher status and higher paid jobs than women.
Social Class
Class is a form of layering known as stratification of groups in society. Those at the highest levels have
lives of comfort and privilege. Those in the lowest levels, have lives of poverty and deprivation.…read more

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Play important role in political affairs.
Service Class ­ Includes those who provide services that are highly valued, such as health, welfare,
media and fashion. Usually have a degree of autonomy in their work, and can delegate. Relatively high
levels of education, but more than likely receive state education, and red brick uni's.
Lower Middles ­ Less prestigious white-collar jobs (bank clerks). Middle managers, highly skilled blue
collar jobs. Earn around national average. Accumulate some wealth over their lives. Complete some post-
secondary school qualifications.…read more


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