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OCR Sociology G671
Revision Booklet




By Jack Richardson

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Definitions

Culture ­ The culture of a society is the way of life of its members, the collection of ideas and habits which
they share and transmit from generation to generation.

Norms ­ Social expectations or rules about how people should or should not behave. Social norms are
accepted ways…

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Multiculturalism ­ Different subcultures (often ethnic), living side by side in society. UK is multicultural
with around 9% of the population coming from ethnic backgrounds.



Process of Socialisation

Nature/Nurture ­ Nature is associated with those who would argue that behaviour is determined by
innate or inherited factors. Nurture side argue…

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o Age Related Issues: Individuals position within the family can influence how others see them/how they
see themselves. People consider their parents to be a part of a different generation to themselves

o Ethnicity: Surnames and first names can portray a sense of ethnic identity. Language spoken, food and
clothing…

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o Age Related Issues: From first starting school, age is a determining factor. Month child is born determines
year group, and position in that year group as old/young. This remains with child until they leave.
Identification with age boundaries at such a young age is likely to have a lasting…

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o Age Related Issues: Media represent different age categories in stereotypical ways. Youths over-
represented as deviant and troublesome. Middle aged ­ time of crisis. Old age ­ Time of dependency and
loneliness. These representations are important, because they influence popular culture so heavily.

o Ethnicity: In locations where few…

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o Complicit Masculinity ­ Men who believe men and women should share roles.
o Subordinate Masculinity ­ Homosexual men (acceptance is growing).
o Marginalised Masculinity ­ Men who can see there is a decline in manual work (as technology increases)
and women are taking more of the jobs that are…

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challenging male power. Men learn to want to possess women who embody beauty. Reduces women to
objects and motivates men to possess them. Myth says the key to a woman's happiness lies in beauty.
- Ferguson '85 offered new possibilities of freedom and independence but included a new set of…

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power in house to limit their own work (hire cleaners-other women!). While typically, men want special
attention to any housework, taking for granted contributions of women.

- Horizontal Segregation ­ extent to which women and men do different jobs.
- Vertical Segregation ­ Refers to extent to which men have…

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- Play important role in political affairs.



Service Class ­ Includes those who provide services that are highly valued, such as health, welfare,
media and fashion. Usually have a degree of autonomy in their work, and can delegate. Relatively high
levels of education, but more than likely receive state education,…

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