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Functionalism: `Structural Functionalism' or more commonly known as just
`Functionalism' is a viewpoint on Sociology which illustrates society as a
structure. Functionalists take on a positive view on society, and believe that
everything that happens in society is a good thing. They believe that everything in
society has a function, hence the name `functionalism' and they also look at
society on a large scale, so they look how a certain element affects a whole
society, not just one person.
Marxism: Marxists, unlike Functionalists take on a negative approach to society,
and always see bad in everything. They look on society on a large scale, so like
Functionalists they look how a certain element affects a whole society, not just
one person. Marxists follow a Communist way of living, and believe that there will
someday be a revolution in the working class. They also believe society is based
on conflict, and that there are conflict between different social classes.
Feminist Theory: The majority of Feminists have a negative view on society,
and believe that the country is ruled under patriarchy (male dormancy). They also
look on society on a large scale (like Functionalists and Marxists). They are
similar to Marxists, in that they believe that there is a conflict in society, but
instead of it being between social classes, it is between sexes, in that women
have a disadvantage to men and that men have more power than women.
Social Action Theory: Max Weber came up with the Action Theory, but
sociologists later adopted the idea. The Social Action Theory shows how people
choose between personal desires, or pressure in society that will determine their
later actions. It also shows how the relationship between social structures and
people whose mannerisms and actions produce them.