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Quick notes
· Atom is like chlorine
· Element is something comprised of only one
type of atom
· Amount of bonds is 8 minus the group
· 2H means 2 molecules of H and 2 moles of H
· An ion is something that has gained/ lost
electrons…read more

Slide 3

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Ionic bonding / compounds
· Between metals and non metals
· Metals loose electrons to form positive ions
· Non metals gain electrons to form negative ions
· Have electrostatic attraction and so ionic bond is
· High melting and boiling points (giant lattice
· Conducts electricity when melted or dissolved as
ions are free to move.…read more

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Covalent bonding / compounds
· Between non metals only
· Share electrons which are attracted by nuclei
and form molecules i.e. NH…read more

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Giant covalent structures
· Allotropes ­ bonded differently so same chemical
but different properties
· Diamond- rare form of carbon - each atom bonded
to four others ­ creates giant lattice ­ very hard, high
melting and boiling point, covalent bond, no
electricity as no free electrons or ions.
· Sand ­ similar properties to diamond ­ impure form
of silicon dioxide, each silicon is bonded to 4 oxygen,
each oxygen to 2 silicon.…read more

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Graphite ­ each atom bonded to three others ­
forms rings of 6 atoms ­ layers held with weak
forces of attraction.
Soft and slippery ­ weak forces, layers, easily
broken, used as lubricant
Conducts electricity ­ only non metal ­ free
electron from each atom
· Buckminster fullerene ­ 60 carbon atoms, each
bonds with 3 others with 2 single and 1 double.
· Arrangement is 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons to
form spheres…read more

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