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V-Shaped Valleys.

In the upper course of rivers the characteristically large-calibre sediment load
is usually only transported when the discharge has risen as a result of heavy rain
or snowmelt. At such times the bouncing and rolling of boulders and cobbles
may cause intensive vertical erosion, which in turn produces…

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Spurs.

Interlocking spurs are also characteristic of the upper courses of rivers. These
form when the river winds around protrusions, hills or ridges of land (spurs)
which appear to interlock when views looking up or down valley. A wider valley
may develop in the middle course with a near flat…

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Waterfalls and rapids occur when there is a sudden change in the gradient of
the river as it flows downstream. Waterfalls are more dramatic features than
rapids and may be the results of:

A resistant band of rock occurring across the course of the river.
The edge of a plateau…

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Potholes.

Potholes are cylindrical holes drilled into the rocky bed of a river by turbulent
high-velocity water loaded with pebbles. The pebbles become trapped in
slight hollows and vertical eddies in the water are strong enough to allow the
sediment to grind a hole into the rock by abrasion. Attrition…

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Floodplains.

Floodplains are created as a result of both erosion and deposition, although the
accumulation of river deposits suggests that they are predominantly
depositional features. They are relatively flat areas of land either side of the
river, which form the valley floor in the middle and lower courses of river.…

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