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The Cosmological Argument
- show logic/rationality of believing in god.
- By examining the fact the universe exists we can work out cause
Aquinas the five ways
- final work = summa theologiae summed up his ideas about theology
- first 3 of his 5 ways collectively make the cosmological argument
Ways 1 & 2 the arguments for an unmoved mover and an uncaused causer
FIRST WAY motion (the unmoved mover)
- everything is in motion or has the potential to change e.g humans develop, grow
old and die.
- Aquinas said all change is caused by something
- because nothing can move of it's own accord, there has to a prime mover.
SECOND WAY causation (the uncaused causer)
-cause and effect are natural in our world
-whatever happens is caused by something else
- ISSUE HOW DO WE KNOW? MATT SLICK (xtian apologetic) A
ROCK DOESN'T BECOME AN AXEHEAD WITHOUT BEING ACTED
UPON. 'SO WE MUST ASK WHAT ACTED UPON MATTER AND
ENERGY TO CAUSE THE UNIVERSE TO EXIST?' NOT AN ACT OF
TRUE CREATION IN THE DIVINE SENSE.
- it would be illogical to say something can cause itself (infinite regression)
- ISSUE EITHER IT CREATED ITSELF OR GOD CREATED IT? =
FALSE DICHOTOMY. COULD HAVE ALWAYS EXISTED IN SOME
FORM, COULD HAVE BEEN ACTED UPON BY IMPERSONAL FORCE
ETC/ SOMETHING BEYOND HUMAN UNDERSTANDING.
- must be a first cause, first cause = god
- ISSUES WHO CREATED GOD?
WHY IS GOD EXEMPT FROM NEEDING A CAUSE BUT THE UNIVERSE
WHY CAN'T THE UNIVERSE ITSELF BE THE UNCAUSED CAUSE?
Points to note about first and second ways
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- INFINITE REGRESSION needs a 'pure act'
- first mover or first efficient cause = ontological (why anything exists at all)
Is Aquinas right to say that you cannot have an infinite regression of causes?
- 1. mathematically possible
- 2. if every contingent thing at one point did not exist, nothing would come to
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Hume = empiricist facts/knowledge from senses.
- Could the universe not be infinite? Does it need a cause? Why? Just because
each human has a mother/ cause = FALLACY OF COMPOSITION
'obviously the human race hasn't a mother, that's a different logic
sphere' BETRAND RUSSELL
- 'IF THE MATERIAL WORLD RESTS UPON A SIMILAR IDEAL, THIS
IDEAL WORLD MUST REST UPON SOME OTHER, AND SO ON,
WITHOUT END' hume.…read more