Full C3 AQA revsion notes

Sorry it's a bit late but hopefully these will be useful for those taking the exam next year. Again a fully detailed set of notes on everything you need to know (as far as I am aware) for the AQA Triple Chemistry exam.

Everything is explained to the best of my ability in a way that I understand it - Hope this is useful :)

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  • Created on: 24-05-11 15:32
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Chemistry 3
Part 1: The Periodic Table:

John Newlands:
- Tried listing the elements in order of atomic mass.
- Every eight element was similar, but the pattern broke after the first 15.

Dmitri Meneleev:
- He left gaps in his table so similar elements always lined up.
- He…

Page 2

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Transition Metals:
Hard, strong, dense and very high melting points (except mercury)
Not very reactive.
Form coloured compounds.
They form ions with different charges.
They are important catalysts in industry.


Group 7: Halogens:
Non metals.
They react with metals to produce ionic salts, ions with a 1- charge.
They react…

Page 3

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Part 2: Acids and Bases

Key words:
Acid: contains hydrogen ions (pH 6 ­ 1)
Alkali: contains hydroxide ions (pH 8 ­ 14)
Base: Something that neutralises an acid.
Strong / weak: Strong ionises in water, weak only partially ionises in water.




Ionisation:
Acids must be in solution to show…

Page 4

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The calculations:

1. Find the balanced equation to work out how many moles of acid
reacts with how many moles of alkali.
2. Use: Ma x Va = Mb x Vb.
3. Re-arrange the equation to calculate the answer:
Ma x Va
= Mb
e.g.
Vb
4. Multiply by the…

Page 5

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Part 3: Aqueous Chemistry:

Condensation:
The energy It gets cooler as
from the sun the air rises
powers the Precipitation
whole
cycle.


Surface run
off- Snow melts
and this water
returns to the
sea.

Evaporation
from the sea Plant Uptake
and the soil Transpiration and
respiration release
water vapour


Key…

Page 6

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Fizzy Drinks: as you release the pressure in the bottle by opening the cap
some of the carbon dioxide bubbles out.

Water Purification:




Drinking waters is purified by
physical and chemical
processes to remove solids,
bacteria and smell.




Hard water contains dissolved calcium and/or magnesium ions.
We can soften hard…

Page 7

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Or we can use an ion exchange column.




Hard Water:
Disadvantages Advantages
- Difficult to lather soap - Better taste
- Forms limescale and wastes - Health benefits of calcium
energy when you boil the kettle - Reduces heart illness
- Hot water pipes `fur up' - Better for making…

Page 8

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Part 4: Energy:

When we compare fuels we can use a calorimeter to heat water using a fuel.
We measure the temperature change of the water, and the change in mass
of the fuel.
Energy per gram = energy released (J)
Mass of fuel used (g)

We know that it…

Page 9

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Bond energies




In this reaction there are 2 H-H bonds and 1 O=O bond. In the products there
are 4 H-O bonds.

An example equation:
these will
be given to
you if
necessary,
no need to
learn them,
it's just part
of the
example.


Bonds broken: Bonds made:
(2 x…

Page 10

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Part 5: Detection and Identification

Anions (negatively charged ions)
If you're having trouble remembering this think of electrolysis; the negative
ions go towards the anode (+) therefore they are anions.

Halides are tested by dissolving in dilute nitric acid and adding silver nitrate;
the results are as follows:
Halide Resulting…

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