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Old English 400 -
1150 AD
Influences German from invading tribes (Angles, Saxons, Jutes)
New settlers collective language was Anglo-Saxon
Grammar Relied on inflections, prefixes and suffixes e.g.…read more

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East Midland Dialect This is the dialect Caxton chose which was used in courts and
Using it in printing books gave it prestige and permanence
However spelling was still not completely standardised
Mulcaster published the first book and spellings in 1582
Punctuation Three basic punctuation mark
( ) Punctus ­ Full stop
(:) Colon ­ Many purposes
(/)Virgule - Comma
Vocabulary Borrowed words from Latin and Greek with increased interest
in the arts
Latin and Greek gave us prefixes such as ­anti and suffixes…read more

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This stated spellings and meanings thus standardising them
Vocabulary Expansion of British empire brought new words from
countries such as India
Advances in science and medication meant the invention of
new words
New inventions also brought about new words e.g. Typewriter
Social/Cultural/Political development mean new lexis e.g.…read more

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Amelioration When a word develops a more positive meaning
Pejoration When a words develops a more negative meaning
Weakening When a word make less of an impact than it used to e.g.
Terrible used to mean cause terror but now it means
something is very bad
Expansion Where a word that has a specific meaning can develop a more
broader meaning e.g.…read more

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They disappeared because they were often unstressed when
pronounced so were less obvious so when they stopped
being pronounced they were stopped being written
The system of inflections was pretty complicated so moving
to a simpler system could just have been a natural
Different dialects used different inflections so the loss of
inflections made it easier for people from different areas to
understand each other
Second Person Earliest form were `thou' and `thee'
Pronouns From French influence `tu' became the informal version of
you…read more

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Lost its desirability through celebrities and working class
teenagers going to univeristy
Letter formation Letter `U' only appeared in 10th century before `v' was used
Letter `J' appeared in the 15th century before `I' was used
From 17 century onwards the latter `s' was often written as
Causes of
Simplified Complex system of ending words with inflections in old
English was lost and replaced with a simpler system
Omission Make things easier to pronounce
When sounds are lost from…read more

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If the collective groups is named in plural form, they are
addressed in PLURAL (the Beatles ARE good)
AmE uses ELISION ­ removing sounds
Remove the `g' from `-ing'
Present in written texts ­ Of Mice and Men
Use DOUBLE NEGATIVES ­ `aint nothin''
WHY IS ELISION SO COMMON?? ­ Divergence from British
English? Exploitation of Covert Prestige?
Language is used to express self
Americans published own Dictionary (Noah Webster, 1828)
He campaigned for spelling reform (`color' instead of `colour')
Established a difference…read more

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General Australian ­ similar to Cockney
THREE TYPES ­ BROAD Australian ­ stereotypical accent (e.g.
Steve Erwin) spoken by 30%
­ GENERAL Australian ­ 60% speak it. Not stereotypical,
softer (the Minogue sisters)
­ CULTIVATED Australian ­ political/class/rich ­
Divergence.…read more

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If a pidgin language becomes common for a long perios of
time, it becomes a Creole
Example = Jamaican Creole
3 levels to it
ACROLECTS ­ people closest to standard English
MESOLECTS ­ people in middle
BASILECTS ­ people far from standard English…read more



This is sooo helpful! thanks very much x

zac forskitt

Couldn't rate this piece of work anymore, thanks a lot!


this is just what I need, thanks so much!

spent ages writing all this stuff out this is the perfect summary! thank you


This is the perfect summary, distributed it to all the A2 students at my sixth form! Thanks so much

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