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Structure of the Earth
Crust thinnest layer, made of solid rock
Thickest layer M antle made of molten rock
Outer core is liquid + can reach temperatures of 400°C, made of an ironnickel alloy
Inner core is the hottest part. Made of an ironnickel alloy but made…

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Crater ­ Funnel shaped hollow at the top of the volcano
Magma Chamber ­ Store of molten rock deep inside the Earth
Volcanic Bombs ­ Lumps of rock that solidify when they fall
Main Vent ­ The route up which the magma comes
Lava ­ Molten rock
Secondary Vent ­…

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Lasted 9 hours Overall cost of eruption = $1.1 billion
Infrastructure destroyed 27 bridges, 185
miles of highway + 15 miles of railway

Immediate Long term
15mph speed limit US government donated almost $1 billion
2000 evacuated prior to eruption Buildings + bridges rebuilded
Treatment + emergency services…

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87,000 could die 57 deaths
25 mile high ash cloud 15 mile high ash cloud
10,000km³ of land would be destroyed 25 miles² destroyed
Epicentre ­ Point at which the Earth's surface directly above the focus
Shockwaves ­ Seismic waves generated by an earthquake that passes through the

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disaster resistant community"
$3.45 billion from George Bush Relief Effort US geological service operates a seismic
Money monitoring site in California to help with
immediate responses in future
7800 red cross volunteers Changes to national highway bridge code
45 shelters set up Bay bridge rebuilt to withstand large
earthquakes for…

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Searched for survivors Temporary schools created
$100million in aid given by US Support for 70% unemployed though
'FoodforWork Projects'
810,000 placed in aid camps 1 million still live without houses
150,000 tents + 1million tarpaulin tents Rubble from buildings prevented access to
aids for a period of time
Lack of…

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56 million needed Negatively affected tourist Mangroves, coral reefs,
emergency food, water + industry, people scared to forests + sand dunes were
medical supplies go there for holiday destroyed by the waves

Immediate LongTerm
Hundreds of millions of pounds was Disaster management plans put into place
pledged by foreign…

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3. HydroElectric Power (HEP)
Switzerland gets 60% of its electricity from HEP stations in the Alps
Narrow valleys are dammed to generate electricity
Electricity produced locally is used to power homes + businesses . Exporting to towns
+ cities further away

4. Forestry
Scot Pines planted all over the Alps…


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