FULL RESTLESS EARTH/NATURAL HAZARDS NOTES WITH CASE STUDIES

Case Studies:

  • Mt St Helen's - volcano
  • Yellowstone - supervolcano
  • San Franciso - MEDC earthquake
  • Haiti - LEDC earthquake
  • Boxing Day Tsunami - tsunami
  • Alps - fold mountains
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  • Created by: binijohn
  • Created on: 10-05-16 20:02
Preview of FULL RESTLESS EARTH/NATURAL HAZARDS NOTES WITH CASE STUDIES

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GEOGRAPHY RESTLESS EARTH
Structure of the Earth
Crust thinnest layer, made of solid rock
Thickest layer M antle made of molten rock
Outer core is liquid + can reach temperatures of 400°C, made of an ironnickel alloy
Inner core is the hottest part. Made of an ironnickel alloy but made solid through
very high pressures
Convection currents in mantle make tectonic plates move
Differences in Tectonic Plates
Oceanic Plate Continental Plate
Thin Plate Thick Plate
Less that 200 million years old Over 1500 million years old
Can sink at plate margins Doesn't sink at plate margins
Can be renewed/destroyed Cannot be renewed/destroyed
Types of Plate Margins
A plate margin is where 2 plates meet
1) Destructive Plate Margin
The continental and oceanic plate moves towards each other due to the convection
currents . The continental plate subducts the oceanic because it's more dense . Friction
cause the melting of the oceanic plate; may trigger earthquakes . Magma rises through
cracks + erupts on the surface. Can form volcanoes
Example: Nazca plate subducted under South American Plate
2) Constructive Plate Margin
2 plates move apart from each other, due to convection currents , this leaves a gap .
Magma rises to fill the gap, cools + solidifies to form new rock crust , causes formation of
volcanoes.
Example: MidAtlantic Ridge
3) Conservative Plate Margin
No crust is created/destroyed but it does cause earthquakes
2 plates move in opposite directions/in the same directions but at different speeds . When
2 plates stick, pressure builds up. When the plates move, the pressure releases
shockwaves which creates an earthquake
Example: San Andreas Fault
Volcanoes
Terminology:

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Crater ­ Funnel shaped hollow at the top of the volcano
Magma Chamber ­ Store of molten rock deep inside the Earth
Volcanic Bombs ­ Lumps of rock that solidify when they fall
Main Vent ­ The route up which the magma comes
Lava ­ Molten rock
Secondary Vent ­ Formed when main route is blocked + magma is forced to the
surface by another route
Ash ­ Small pieces of shattered rock thrown from the volcano
Differences in Volcanoes
Composite Shield
Layers of thick…read more

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Lasted 9 hours Overall cost of eruption = $1.…read more

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³ of land would be destroyed 25 miles² destroyed
Earthquakes
Epicentre ­ Point at which the Earth's surface directly above the focus
Shockwaves ­ Seismic waves generated by an earthquake that passes through the
crust
Focus ­ Point in the Earth's crust where the earthquake originates
Mercalli Scale ­ Way of measuring earthquakes by describing + comparing the
damage on a scale of I to XII
Richter Scale ­ Logarithmic scale used for measuring earthquakes , based on
scientific readings of the amount of movements…read more

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George Bush Relief Effort US geological service operates a seismic
Money monitoring site in California to help with
immediate responses in future
7800 red cross volunteers Changes to national highway bridge code
45 shelters set up Bay bridge rebuilt to withstand large
earthquakes for 1500 year period
Shelter found for the 12,000 homeless California reinforced building codes
especially public ones
Search for survivors on Nemitz highway
Airports shut
Everyone in Candlestick stadium was
evacuated
CASE STUDY ­ Haiti Earthquake
January 12th
2010
Effects
Primary Secondary…read more

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Searched for survivors Temporary schools created
$100million in aid given by US Support for 70% unemployed though
'FoodforWork Projects'
810,000 placed in aid camps 1 million still live without houses
150,000 tents + 1million tarpaulin tents Rubble from buildings prevented access to
aids for a period of time
Lack of immediate aid due to poor access
(port was destroyed)
Reducing Impacts on Earthquakes
Prediction ­ Attempts to forecast where + when an event will happen based on
current knowledge
Preparation ­ Organising activities/drills so people…read more

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Negatively affected tourist Mangroves, coral reefs,
emergency food, water + industry, people scared to forests + sand dunes were
medical supplies go there for holiday destroyed by the waves
Responses
Immediate LongTerm
Hundreds of millions of pounds was Disaster management plans put into place
pledged by foreign governments, charities, in some countries, volunteers trained so
individuals + businesses to give survivors that locals know what to do if tsunami
access to food, water, shelter + medical occurs again
attention
£372 million donated by British Billions…read more

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HydroElectric Power (HEP)
Switzerland gets 60% of its electricity from HEP stations in the Alps
Narrow valleys are dammed to generate electricity
Electricity produced locally is used to power homes + businesses . Exporting to towns
+ cities further away
4. Forestry
Scot Pines planted all over the Alps as they're resilient to grazing goats
Trees are logged + sold to make things like furniture
5.…read more

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