FULL POPULATION CHANGE NOTES WITH CASE STUDIES

 AQA Unit 2 Human Geography - Population change notes, highlighted and colour coordinated with case studies.

Case Studies:

  • China's One Child Policy
  • Kerala's Population Control
  • France's Pro-Natal Policy (solution to ageing population)
  • Ageing Population in UK 
  • Economic Migration within the EU (Poland to UK)
  • Refugee Migration to the EU (African countries to Spain)
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  • Created by: binijohn
  • Created on: 26-04-16 16:22

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UNIT 2 ­ POPULATION CHANGE
Population Growth
Changes in birth + death rate affect population
Birth Rate
High Birth Rate Low Birth Rate
Many children die in infancy parents Machinery not as many people are
have many to ensure some survive needed on farms
To help on the farm Women…

Page 2

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High birth + Death rates Death rate Low birth + Death rate rises, birth
death rates, decrease , birth further death rates, rate falls ageing
little medicine , rate decreases + birth rates population ,uncertain
low life high population birth rate falls, fluctuate economy discourage
expectancy, no increase, improved birth…

Page 3

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Death rate is low + fluctuating
Higher life expectancy ageing population; dependent groups are larger than
independent groups









CASE STUDY ­ China's One Child Policy
Incentives
What you got for only having 1 child:
Tax breaks
Preferential access to housing, schools + healthcare
510% salary increase

Disincentives
Fines for each…

Page 4

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1. If both parents with have no siblings, they can have more than 1 child balance
the dependency ratio look after the older generations
2. People living in countryside can have more than 1 child still need for agricultural
labour children work on land. BUT 2nd
child is only allowed…

Page 5

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Rapid Population Growth

Impacts

Social:
Food shortages if the country can't grow/import enough for the population
Children work to support families miss out on education
Not enough houses forced to live in makeshift houses in overcrowded
settlements houses not always connected to sewers / have access to clean water
health…

Page 6

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Ageing Population

Causes
Lower fertility rate fewer young being born
Increased life expectancy older people live longer

Effects
Social
Positive Negative
Grandparents provide free childcare Spend more time working as unpaid carers
for older family members working
population have less leisure time + are
more worried
Smaller state pensions
Later…

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Ageing Population

Coping with an Ageing Population

1. Encouraging Larger Families
More children higher population of economically active support dependent
groups in future
May result in 'baby boom ' pressure on schools, childcare + healthcare services
Not sustainable as it increases population size

2. Encourage Migration of Young People
High…

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CASE STUDY ­ Ageing Population in UK

Causes
1. INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY proportion of older people increasing
Advances in medicine + improved living standards
Expectancy rose by 2.6 years for women + 6.4 years for men between 1980 and
2006

2. BABY BOOM turned into a 'pensioner boom '
lots…

Page 9

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3. ENCOURAGE WOMEN TO HAVE CHILDREN
Working family tax credits support women who go back to work after children are
born more affordable to have children

4. ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO TAKE OUT PRIVATE PENSIONS
Government gives tax breaks for some types of private pension
People won't be so dependent on…

Page 10

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source country










CASE STUDY ­ Migration Within The EU

Economic Migrants
Over half a million people moved from Poland to the UK from 2004 ­ 2007
PUSH PULL
High employment around 19% Ease of migration ­ unlimited migration in
2004
Low avg wages around of avg EU wage More work…

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