FULL POPULATION CHANGE NOTES WITH CASE STUDIES

 AQA Unit 2 Human Geography - Population change notes, highlighted and colour coordinated with case studies.

Case Studies:

  • China's One Child Policy
  • Kerala's Population Control
  • France's Pro-Natal Policy (solution to ageing population)
  • Ageing Population in UK 
  • Economic Migration within the EU (Poland to UK)
  • Refugee Migration to the EU (African countries to Spain)
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  • Created by: binijohn
  • Created on: 26-04-16 16:22
Preview of FULL POPULATION CHANGE NOTES WITH CASE STUDIES

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UNIT 2 ­ POPULATION CHANGE
Population Growth
Changes in birth + death rate affect population
Birth Rate
High Birth Rate Low Birth Rate
Many children die in infancy parents Machinery not as many people are
have many to ensure some survive needed on farms
To help on the farm Women want to go to university + pursue
their careers
Religious reasons no use of Increased use of contraception
contraception
More interested in material possessions
Death Rate
High Death Rate Low Death Rate
Famine + unreliable food More doctors
Diseases, e.g. cholera + typhoid Better healthcare
No access to clean water Vaccinations more available for children
Poor sanitation
Demographic Transition Model (DTM):
STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4 STAGE 5

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High birth + Death rates Death rate Low birth + Death rate rises, birth
death rates, decrease , birth further death rates, rate falls ageing
little medicine , rate decreases + birth rates population ,uncertain
low life high population birth rate falls, fluctuate economy discourage
expectancy, no increase, improved birth control slightly, very births, booming
access to family basic healthcare + more available , slow economies encourage
planning , found sanitation , people benefit population women to have jobs,
in traditional children needed to from…read more

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Death rate is low + fluctuating
Higher life expectancy ageing population; dependent groups are larger than
independent groups
CASE STUDY ­ China's One Child Policy
Incentives
What you got for only having 1 child:
Tax breaks
Preferential access to housing, schools + healthcare
510% salary increase
Disincentives
Fines for each additional child fines were so large it would often leave households
bankrupt
Forced sterilisation
10% salary cut for families with more than 1 child
Problems from Policy
Forced abortions as late as 9 months
Women…read more

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If both parents with have no siblings, they can have more than 1 child balance
the dependency ratio look after the older generations
2. People living in countryside can have more than 1 child still need for agricultural
labour children work on land. BUT 2nd
child is only allowed if the first is a girl / has
a physical disability
3.…read more

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Rapid Population Growth
Impacts
Social:
Food shortages if the country can't grow/import enough for the population
Children work to support families miss out on education
Not enough houses forced to live in makeshift houses in overcrowded
settlements houses not always connected to sewers / have access to clean water
health problems
Economical:
Not enough jobs unemployment increases
I ncreased poverty more born into families that are already poor
Political:
Population is mostly young focuses policies on young e.g.…read more

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Ageing Population
Causes
Lower fertility rate fewer young being born
Increased life expectancy older people live longer
Effects
Social
Positive Negative
Grandparents provide free childcare Spend more time working as unpaid carers
for older family members working
population have less leisure time + are
more worried
Smaller state pensions
Later retirement age
Stress on healthcare
Economic
Positive Negative
Provides jobs e.g.…read more

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Ageing Population
Coping with an Ageing Population
1. Encouraging Larger Families
More children higher population of economically active support dependent
groups in future
May result in 'baby boom ' pressure on schools, childcare + healthcare services
Not sustainable as it increases population size
2. Encourage Migration of Young People
High population of working force
Money could be sent home doesn't stay in UK economy
Not sustainable as it increases population size
3.…read more

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CASE STUDY ­ Ageing Population in UK
Causes
1. INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY proportion of older people increasing
Advances in medicine + improved living standards
Expectancy rose by 2.6 years for women + 6.4 years for men between 1980 and
2006
2. BABY BOOM turned into a 'pensioner boom '
lots of babies born in 1940s and 1960s now retiring
3. DROP IN BIRTH RATE proportion of older people increasing
Fewer babies being born fewer young people
Problems
1.…read more

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ENCOURAGE WOMEN TO HAVE CHILDREN
Working family tax credits support women who go back to work after children are
born more affordable to have children
4.…read more

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CASE STUDY ­ Migration Within The EU
Economic Migrants
Over half a million people moved from Poland to the UK from 2004 ­ 2007
PUSH PULL
High employment around 19% Ease of migration ­ unlimited migration in
2004
Low avg wages around of avg EU wage More work + higher wages ­ big demand of
tradesmen e.g.…read more

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