From Kaiser to Fuhrer: The Rise of the Nazis (4)

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4.1: The rise of the Nazis
Origins
1. The German Workers Party (DAP) founded by Anton Drexler in Munich after WWI
2. Hitler joined the party and began making powerful speeches condemning the Treaty of
Versailles, Jews and Communists
3. Party renamed National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)
4. 1920, 25-point programme drawn up
5. 1921, Hitler became Fuhrer of NSDAP
Ideas
1. German Nationalism
a. Germany should be strong
b. All German-speakers should be united
c. Colonial expansion in Europe for Lebensraum
d. Treaty of Versailles repudiated
2. Racial ideas
a. Aryans superior race
3. Anti-Semitism
a. Jews inferior race
b. Interbreeding weakened Aryan race
4. Social Darwinism
a. It is morally right that superior races eradicated weaker ones

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The early years
The Munich Putsch
1. November 1923
2. Hitler, Rohm and Ludendorff and SA announced national revolution in a beer hall in Munich
3. Bavarian police tipped off
4. Putsch was diffused easily
Wilderness years
1. Hitler guilty of treason, but only given 5 years
2. Nazis banned in Bavaria
3. In jail, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf
4. He also decided to work within the Weimar system to achieve power
5. When he was released, he reorganised the party
a.…read more

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Economic and political crisis in Germany, 1929-1933
The economic impact of Depression
1. Following Wall Street Crash in October 1929, US economy failed, and because Germany
relied on US loans, so did Germany's
a. National income shrunk by 39%, 1929-1932
b. Industrial production declined more than 40%
c. 6 million unemployed in 1932. 1/3 working age unemployed
d. 50,000 businesses bankrupt
e. 1931 banking crisis, five banks collapsed
f. Homelessness and poverty rose
The political impact of the Depression
1.…read more

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The growth of Nazi support
Nazi Party vote
1. 1928 = 2.6% with 12 seats
2. 1930 = 18.3% with 107 seats
3. July 1932 = 37.3% with 230 seats
4. Nazi Part largest in Reichstag in 1932
Demographics
1. 2/3 members in 1930 under 40
2. Protestant more likely than Catholics ­ who voted for Centre
3. Rural dwellers more likely
4. Working class 31% of vote, but less likely to vote for Nazis (they were largest social group at
46% of population)
5.…read more

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Support from the conservative elite
1. Hindenburg refused to appoint Hitler s Chancellor
2. Mass popularity was not sufficient for Hitler to appointed
3. Conservatives in business and the army turned to Hitler in prospect of a Communist takeover
4. KPD vote 3.2m in 1928 to 5.9m in 1933
5. Bankers and industrialists including Hjalmar Schacht , IG Farben and Gustav Krupp pressurised
Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor
6. Army leaders told Hindenburg that they'd struggle controlling the SA and Communist
uprisings.…read more

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Nazi consolidation of power
Reichstag Fire
1. 27 February 1933
2. A Dutch communist, Lubbe, set fire to the Reichstag building
3. Nazis used this event to persuade the public the Communists were plotting against Germany
4. Hindenburg declared a national emergency
The Reichstag Fire Decree and the campaign against the left
1. 28 February, 1933
2. The Law for the Protection of People and State (Reichstag Fire Decree)
a. Freedom of speech, free press and freedom of association suspended
b.…read more

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Factors enabling Nazi consolidation of power
Terror
1. Reichstag Fire Decree removed people's civil rights
2. Elections of March 1933 violent
3. Enabling Act gave Hitler power to eradicate opposition by being a one-party state
4. Political left smashed by 1933
a. 150k-200k political opponents imprisoned in 1933
b. Concentration camps opened
c. KPD banned after Reichstag Fire
d. Trade unions all shut on May 1933
e. SPD banned June 1933
f. All other parties disbanded in July 1933
g.…read more

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