French Grammar Notes

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French AS grammar
Nouns
Gender:
Masculine endings:
- acle
- age (exc. La cage, une image, la page, la plage)
- al
- ail
- amme (exc. La gamme)
- eau
- ème
- er (exc. La mer)
- et
- isme
- ment (exc. La jument)
- oir
Feminine endings :
- ance
- anse
- ée (exc. Le lycée, le musée)
- ence (exc. Le silence)
- ense
- esse
- eur (exc. Le bonheur, le malheur)
- ie (exc. le génie)
- ière (exc. Le cimetière)
- ise
- sion
- tié
- té (exc. Le côté, le pâté, le traité, le comité)
- tion (exc. Le bastion)
- ure
These nouns never change gender :
Always masculine:
Un amateur, un auteur, un bébé, un ingénieur, un médecin, un peintre, un professeur, un sculpteur,
un témoin
Always feminine :
Une connaissance, une personne, une recrue, une sentinelle, une star, une vedette, une victime

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Plural nouns :
Generally made plural by adding ­s
Other endings :
Singular Plural
-al -aux, -als
-ail -aux, -ails
-au, -eau, -eu add ­x
-ou -ous, -oux
-s, -x, -z no change
Exceptions to learn :
Le ciel Les cieux
Un oeil Les yeux
Le grand-parent Les grands-parents
Madame Mesdames
Mademoiselle Mesdemoiselles
Monsieur messieurs
Articles
Definite articles :
Le, la, l', les
Needed :
1. Before abstract nouns or nouns used to generalise
e.g. l'argent donne la liberté
2.…read more

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Adjectives
Agreement :
Adjectives must agree with their noun in gender and number.
Usually masculine singular :
Add ­e for feminine
Add ­s for plural
Add ­es for feminine plural
Note :
adjectives ending in -e do not need an extra e for the feminine form
adjectives that end in ­s or ­x do not change for masculine plural
Masculine/feminine endings :
Masc. Fem.…read more

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To compare :
Plus...que (more...than)
Moins...que (less...than)
Aussi...que (as...as)
Note : each adjective must still agree with its noun
To form superlatives :
Le/la/les plus/moins + adjective (the most/biggest/best etc)
e.g. Ce sont les filles les moins sportives
Irregular forms :
Bon = meilleur (better/best)
Mauvais = pire (worse/worst)
Demonstrative :
Ce, cet, cette, ces
Equivalent of this, that, those, these used before a noun
E.g. je voudrais ces chaussures ­ i'd like these/those shoes
Sing. Plural
Masc. Ce (cet before vowel) Ces
Fem.…read more

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Adverbs
Comparatives and superlatives :
These are formed in the same way as for adjectives
Moins souvent que..., plus vite que..., aussi facilement que...
Note irregulars :
Bien = mieux (well/better/the best)
Mal = pire (badly/worse/the worst)
Interrogative :
Comment, quand, combien, pourquoi, où
All of these can be used to asked questions with est-ce que or inversion
Quantifiers/intensifiers
Très, assez, beaucoup
Assez de..
Peu de...…read more

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Indirect means when there is someone or something in the way, usually indicated by the word or
sense of to
So "he talks to me" = "il me parle"
Direct literally means when there's no one or nothing in the way
So he sees me is "il me voit"
Direct and indirect pronouns go before the verb when the phrase is negative and the ne...pas o
other negative terms wraps around the pronoun and the verb
E.g.…read more

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Que Who, whom, which, that
Ce qui What, something that
Ce que What, something that
Où Where, when
Don't Of which, whose
Quoi What
Lequel, laquelle, lesquels, Which
lesquelles
Qui is the most common of these, it represents someone or something that is the subject of the
verb that follows
Que is used when the pronoun relates to someone or something that is the object of the verb
Ce qui is used for the subject of a verb
Examples of the other relative pronouns:
-…read more

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Sing Plural
Masc Celui Ceux
Fem Celle Celles
Possessive:
Possessive pronouns needs a definite article (a word for the)
C'est à qui ce sac? C'est le mien!
Whose bag is this? It's mine!
Masc. sing Fem. sing Masc pl. Fem pl.…read more

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These are conjugated in the same way as other verbs, however have a reflexive pronoun between
the subject and verb: me, te, se, nous, vous, se
S'intéresser : to be interested
Je m'intéresse
Tu t'intéresses
Il/elle/on s'intéresse
Nous nous intéressons
Vous vous intéressez
Ils/elles s'intéressent
Perfect tense : reflexive verbs take être
Impersonal verbs :
"Impersonal" simply means that the verb does not change according to grammatical person.…read more

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à to think of
réussir à to succeed in
Verbs followed by de + infintive :
accepter de to agree to
s'arrêter de to stop
avoir envie de to feel like
avoir peur de to be afraid to
cesser de to stop
choisir de to choose
décider de to decide
essayer de to try
éviter de to avoid
finir de to finish
oublier de to forget
refuser de to refuse
rêver de to dream of
venir de to have just
Prepositions + infinitive :
au…read more

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