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Depuis
The preposition depuis means `since' or `for':

J'ai mal à la tête depuis lundi.
I've had a headache since Monday.

Il a mal à la gorge depuis trois jours.
He's had a sore throat for three days.

In English, we use the perfect tense: `I have had a headache…

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Using the negative
To make a sentence negative i.e. not, put ne/n' and pas around the verb:

Je ne comprends pas l'exercice.
I don't understand the exercise.

In the perfect tense, the ne/n' and pas go round the auxiliary verb:

Je ne suis pas allé
I did not go.

Use…

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y
Y usually means `there' and is used instead of repeating the name of a place.

Quand vas-tu au marché ?
When are you going to the market?

J'y vais dimanche.
I'm going there on Sunday.

It is also used to replace à or dans + a noun or phrase…

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