Frameworks: discourse SUMMARY

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DISCOURSE
(AO2-FRAMEWORKS)
DISCOURSE STRUCTURE
This explains how texts are put in together.
Discourse structure Key features Examples
List/instructions Logical progression through stages, use Recipes, instructions and guides.
of imperative verbs to instruct, guide.
Problem-solution Identifies a problem. Product advertisements.
Analysis Breaks down key ideas. Articles and newspaper editorials.
Evaluates and explores.
Narrative Series of events and this can be Novels and witness accounts.
chronological or non-chronological.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
Discourse framework looks at how texts present information in order to create identities for particular individuals or
institutions and the ideologies that are often included.
One speaker is narrative. Multi speakers are conversational.
ANALYSING ORAL NARRATIVES: LABOV'S NARRATIVE CATEGORIES (AO2-THEORISTS)
When a speaker talks for a long period, it is known as narrating. Labov put forward a six part structure for oral narrative
accounts of narrative events.
Abstract (A), the indication that a narrative is about to start and the speaker wants a listener's attention.
Orientation (O), the who, what, where and why of the narrative. This sets the scene and provides further contextual
information to the listener.
Complicating action (CA), the main body providing a range of detail.
Resolution (R), the final events in order to give the narrative closure.

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Evaluation (EV), additions to the basic story, to highlight attitudes or to command and the listener's attention at
important moments.
Coda (C), a sign that the narration is complete. This might include a return to the initial time frame before the
narrative.
THE ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATIONS
This usually occurs with an exchange structure between multi speakers.
Adjacency pairs are common in conversations; an example of this is during turn taking with question and answers.…read more

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